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mem.4freebsd

Langue: en

Version: 300619 (debian - 07/07/09)

Section: 4 (Pilotes et protocoles réseau)


BSD mandoc

NAME

mem kmem - memory files

SYNOPSIS

device mem

DESCRIPTION

The special file /dev/mem is an interface to the physical memory of the computer. Byte offsets in this file are interpreted as physical memory addresses. Reading and writing this file is equivalent to reading and writing memory itself. Only offsets within the bounds of /dev/mem are allowed.

Kernel virtual memory is accessed through the interface /dev/kmem in the same manner as /dev/mem Only kernel virtual addresses that are currently mapped to memory are allowed.

On ISA the I/O memory space begins at physical address 0x000a0000 and runs to 0x00100000. The per-process data size for the current process is UPAGES long, and ends at virtual address 0xf0000000.

IOCTL INTERFACE

Several architectures allow attributes to be associated with ranges of physical memory. These attributes can be manipulated via Fn ioctl calls performed on /dev/mem Declarations and data types are to be found in In sys/memrange.h .

The specific attributes, and number of programmable ranges may vary between architectures. The full set of supported attributes is:

MDF_UNCACHEABLE
The region is not cached.
MDF_WRITECOMBINE
Writes to the region may be combined or performed out of order.
MDF_WRITETHROUGH
Writes to the region are committed synchronously.
MDF_WRITEBACK
Writes to the region are committed asynchronously.
MDF_WRITEPROTECT
The region cannot be written to.

Memory ranges are described by Vt struct mem_range_desc :

 u_int64_t       mr_base;        /* physical base address */
 u_int64_t       mr_len;         /* physical length of region */
 int             mr_flags;       /* attributes of region */
 char            mr_owner[8];
 

In addition to the region attributes listed above, the following flags may also be set in the Fa mr_flags field:

MDF_FIXBASE
The region's base address cannot be changed.
MDF_FIXLEN
The region's length cannot be changed.
MDF_FIRMWARE
The region is believed to have been established by the system firmware.
MDF_ACTIVE
The region is currently active.
MDF_BOGUS
We believe the region to be invalid or otherwise erroneous.
MDF_FIXACTIVE
The region cannot be disabled.
MDF_BUSY
The region is currently owned by another process and may not be altered.

Operations are performed using Fa struct mem_range_op :

 struct mem_range_desc   *mo_desc;
 int                     mo_arg[2];
 

The MEMRANGE_GET ioctl is used to retrieve current memory range attributes. If mo_arg[0] is set to 0, it will be updated with the total number of memory range descriptors. If greater than 0, the array at mo_desc will be filled with a corresponding number of descriptor structures, or the maximum, whichever is less.

The MEMRANGE_SET ioctl is used to add, alter and remove memory range attributes. A range with the MDF_FIXACTIVE flag may not be removed; a range with the MDF_BUSY flag may not be removed or updated.

mo_arg[0] should be set to MEMRANGE_SET_UPDATE to update an existing or establish a new range, or to MEMRANGE_SET_REMOVE to remove a range.

RETURN VALUES

Bq Er EOPNOTSUPP
Memory range operations are not supported on this architecture.
Bq Er ENXIO
No memory range descriptors are available (e.g. firmware has not enabled any).
Bq Er EINVAL
The memory range supplied as an argument is invalid or overlaps another range in a fashion not supported by this architecture.
Bq Er EBUSY
An attempt to remove or update a range failed because the range is busy.
Bq Er ENOSPC
An attempt to create a new range failed due to a shortage of hardware resources (e.g. descriptor slots).
Bq Er ENOENT
An attempt to remove a range failed because no range matches the descriptor base/length supplied.
Bq Er EPERM
An attempt to remove a range failed because the range is permanently enabled.

FILES

/dev/mem
/dev/kmem

SEE ALSO

kvm(3), memcontrol(8)

HISTORY

The mem and kmem files appeared in AT&T System v6 . The ioctl interface for memory range attributes was added in Fx 3.2 .

BUGS

Busy range attributes are not yet managed correctly.

This device is required for all users of kvm(3) to operate.

Quand je pense que ma présence ici-bas n'est due qu'a deux personnes
qui se sont envoyées en l'air, je deviens philosophe.
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