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amanda

Langue: en

Version: 10/04/2010 (fedora - 01/12/10)

Section: 8 (Commandes administrateur)

amanda - The Open Source Backup Platform

DESCRIPTION

This manual page gives an overview of the Amanda commands and configuration files for quick reference.

COMMANDS

Here are all the Amanda commands. Each one has its own manual page. See them for all the gory details.

* amaddclient(8),
* amadmin(8),
* amaespipe(8),
* amarchiver(8),
* amcheck(8),
* amcheckdb(8),
* amcheckdump(8),
* amcleanup(8),
* amcrypt-ossl-asym(8),
* amcrypt-ossl(8),
* amcrypt(8),
* amcryptsimple(8),
* amdevcheck(8),
* amdump(8),
* amfetchdump(8),
* amflush(8),
* amgetconf(8),
* amgpgcrypt(8),
* amgtar(8),
* amlabel(8),
* amoverview(8),
* ampgsql(8),
* amplot(8),
* amraw(8),
* amrecover(8),
* amreport(8),
* amrestore(8),
* amrmtape(8),
* amsamba(8),
* amserverconfig(8),
* amservice(8),
* amstar(8),
* amstatus(8),
* amsuntar(8),
* amtape(8),
* amtapetype(8),
* amtoc(8),
* amvault(8),
* amzfs-sendrecv(8),
* amzfs-snapshot(8),
* script-email(8),

CONFIGURATION FILES

* amanda.conf(5),
* amanda-client.conf(5),
* disklist(5),
* tapelist(5),

DATA FORMATS

* amanda-archive-format(5),

CONCEPTS

* amanda-applications(7),
* amanda-auth(7),
* amanda-changers(7),
* amanda-compatibility(7),
* amanda-devices(7),
* amanda-scripts(7),
* amanda-taperscan(7),

CONFIGURATION

There are four user-editable files that control the behavior of Amanda.

The first two are amanda.conf(5) and amanda-client.conf(5), the main configuration files for the server and client, respectively. They contain parameters to customize Amanda for the site.

Next is the disklist(5) file, which lists hosts and disk partitions to back up.

Last is the seldom-edited tapelist(5) file, which lists tapes that are currently active. These files are described in more detail in the following sections.

All configuration files are stored in individual configuration directories, usually under FC/etc/amanda/F[]. A site will often have more than one configuration. For example, it might have a normal configuration for everyday backups and an archive configuration for infrequent full archival backups. The configuration files would be stored under directories FC/etc/amanda/normal/F[] and FC/etc/amanda/archive/F[], respectively. Part of the job of an Amanda administrator is to create, populate and maintain these directories.

Most Amanda applications take a "config" parameter; this is generally the (unqualified) name of the configuration directory, e.g., FCnormalF[]. If the parameter is FC.F[] (dot), the current directory is used. This feature is present for backward compatibility, but is not commonly used.

LOG FILES

All log and database files generated by Amanda go in corresponding directories somewhere. The exact location is controlled by entries in amanda.conf(5). A typical location would be under FC/var/adm/amandaF[]. For the above example, the files might go in FC/var/adm/amanda/normal/F[] and FC/var/adm/amanda/archive/F[].

As log files are no longer needed (no longer contain relevant information), Amanda cycles them out in various ways, depending on the type of file.

Detailed information about amdump runs are stored in dump logs -- files named amdump.NN where NN is a sequence number, with 1 being the most recent file. Amdump rotates these files each run, keeping roughly the last tapecycle (see below) worth of them.

The file used by amreport to generate the mail summary is the trace log. This file constitutes the "catalog" describing the data on the tapes written in a run. It is named log.YYYYMMDDHHMMSS.NN where YYYYMMDDHHMMSS is the datestamp of the start of the amdump or amflush run and NN is a sequence number started at 0. At the end of each amdump run, log files for runs whose tapes have been reused are renamed into a subdirectory of the main log directory (see the logdir parameter below) named oldlog. It is up to the Amanda administrator to remove them from this directory when desired.

Index (backup image catalogue) files older than the full dump matching the oldest backup image for a given client and disk are removed by amdump at the end of each run.

Using Samba

For Samba access, Amanda needs a file on the Samba server (which may or may not also be the tape server) named FC/etc/amandapassF[] with share names, (clear text) passwords and (optional) domain names, in that order, one per line, whitespace separated. By default, the user used to connect to the PC is the same for all PC's and is compiled into Amanda. It may be changed on a host by host basis by listing it first in the password field followed by a percent sign and then the password. For instance:

   //some-pc/home normalpw
   //another-pc/disk otheruser%otherpw
 

With clear text passwords, this file should obviously be tightly protected. It only needs to be readable by the Amanda-user on the Samba server.

HOST & DISK EXPRESSION

All host and disk arguments to programs are special expressions. The command applies to all DLEs that match the arguments. This section describes the matcher.

The matcher matches by word, each word is a glob expression, words are separated by the separator '.' for host and '/' for disk. You can anchor the expression at left with a '^'. You can anchor the expression at right with a '$'. The matcher is case insensitive for host but is case sensitive for disk. A match succeeds if all words in your expression match contiguous words in the host or disk.

If the disk is a UNC ("\\windows\share") then all '\' are converted to '/' before the match. Using '\' is complicated because of the extra quoting required by the shell and amanda. It's easier to use '/' because it require less quoting ("//windows/share")

dot (.)

word separator for a host

/

word separator for a disk

\

word separator for a UNC disk

^

anchor at left

$

anchor at right

?

match exactly one character except the separator

*

match zero or more characters except the separator

**

match zero or more characters including the separator

[...]

match a single character, namely any of the characters enclosed by the brackets.

[!...]

match a single character, namely any characters that is not enclosed by the brackets.

The shell interpret some of these characters, they must be escaped by a backslash '\' and/or the expression must be enclosed in simple or double quote.

Some examples:

hosta

Will match FChostaF[], FCfoo.hosta.orgF[], and FChoSTA.dOMAIna.ORGF[] but not FChostbF[].

host

Will match FChostF[] but not FChostaF[].

host?

Will match FChostaF[] and FChostbF[], but not FChostF[].

ho*na

Will match FChoinaF[] but not FCho.aina.orgF[].

ho**na

Will match FChoinaF[] and FCho.aina.orgF[].

^hosta

Will match FChostaF[] but not FCfoo.hosta.orgF[].

sda*

Will match FC/dev/sda1F[] and FC/dev/sda12F[].

/opt

Will match the disk FCoptF[] but not the host FCoptF[].

(note dots:) .opt.

Will match the host FCoptF[] but not the disk FCoptF[].

/

Will match the disk FC/F[] but no other disk.

/usr

Will match the disks FC/usrF[] and FC/usr/localF[].

/usr$

Will match the disks FC/usrF[] but not FC/usr/localF[].

share

Will match the disks FC\\windows1\shareF[] and FC\\windows2\shareF[].

share*

Will match the disks FC\\windows\share1F[] and FC\\windows\share2F[].

//windows/share

Will match the disk FC\\windows\shareF[].

DATESTAMP EXPRESSION

A datestamp expression is a range expression where we only match the prefix. Leading ^ is removed. Trailing $ forces an exact match.

20001212-14

match all dates beginning with 20001212, 20001213 or 20001214

20001212-4

same as previous

20001212-24

match all dates between 20001212 and 20001224

2000121

match all dates that start with 2000121 (20001210-20001219)

2

match all dates that start with 2 (20000101-29991231)

2000-10

match all dates between 20000101-20101231

200010$

match only 200010

DUMP SPECIFICATIONS

A dump specification selects one or more dumps. It has the form [host][:disk][@datestamp], where each component is a pattern as described above. If a component is missing, it is treated as a wildcard. The characters ':', '@', and '\' may be escaped within any component by preceding them with a '\'.

Some examples:

client17

all dumps of client17

@20080615

All dumps on with datestamps matching 20080615

webserver:/var/www

All dumps of /var/www on host webserver

webserver:/var/www@200806150317

The dump of webserver with datestamp 200806150317

:/var/www

All dumps of /var/www on any host

CONFIGURATION OVERRIDE

Most commands allow the override of specific configuration options on the command line, using the -o option. This option has the form -oname=value. An optional space is allowed after the -o. Each configuration option should be specified in a separate command-line option.

For global options, name is simply the name of the option, e.g.,

 amdump -oruntapes=2
 
For options in a named section of the configuration, name has the form SECTION:section_name:name, where SECTION is one of TAPETYPE, DUMPTYPE, HOLDINGDISK, or INTERFACE, and section_name is the name of the tapetype, dumptype, holdingdisk, or interface. Examples:
 amdump -o TAPETYPE:HP-DAT:length=2000m
 amdump -o DUMPTYPE:no-compress:compress="server fast"
 amdump -o HOLDINGDISK:hd1:use="-100 mb"
 amdump -o INTERFACE:local:use="2000 kbps"
 

When overriding device properties, one must carefully quote the command line to simulate the syntax of real configuration files. The following example should serve as a guide:

 amdump -o 'device-property="PROPERTY_MAX_VOLUME_USAGE" "100000"'
 

Note that configuration overrides are not effective for tape changers, which supply a tapedev based on their own configuration. In order to override tapedev, you must also disable any changer:

 amdump -otapedev=/dev/nst1 -otpchanger=''
 

Authors

James da Silva <jds@amanda.org>

Stefan G. Weichinger <sgw@amanda.org>

Le triomphe des femmes est de nous faire adorer leurs défauts et
jusqu'à leurs vices.
-+- Théodore Jouffroy -+-