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BusyBox

Langue: en

Version: 2007-09-21 (openSuse - 09/10/07)

Section: 1 (Commandes utilisateur)

NAME

BusyBox - The Swiss Army Knife of Embedded Linux

SYNTAX


 BusyBox <function> [arguments...]  # or




 <function> [arguments...]          # if symlinked



DESCRIPTION

BusyBox combines tiny versions of many common UNIX utilities into a single small executable. It provides minimalist replacements for most of the utilities you usually find in GNU coreutils, util-linux, etc. The utilities in BusyBox generally have fewer options than their full-featured GNU cousins; however, the options that are included provide the expected functionality and behave very much like their GNU counterparts.

BusyBox has been written with size-optimization and limited resources in mind. It is also extremely modular so you can easily include or exclude commands (or features) at compile time. This makes it easy to customize your embedded systems. To create a working system, just add /dev, /etc, and a Linux kernel. BusyBox provides a fairly complete POSIX environment for any small or embedded system.

BusyBox is extremely configurable. This allows you to include only the components you need, thereby reducing binary size. Run 'make config' or 'make menuconfig' to select the functionality that you wish to enable. Then run 'make' to compile BusyBox using your configuration.

After the compile has finished, you should use 'make install' to install BusyBox. This will install the 'bin/busybox' binary, in the target directory specified by CONFIG_PREFIX. CONFIG_PREFIX can be set when configuring BusyBox, or you can specify an alternative location at install time (i.e., with a command line like 'make CONFIG_PREFIX=/tmp/foo install'). If you enabled any applet installation scheme (either as symlinks or hardlinks), these will also be installed in the location pointed to by CONFIG_PREFIX.

USAGE

BusyBox is a multi-call binary. A multi-call binary is an executable program that performs the same job as more than one utility program. That means there is just a single BusyBox binary, but that single binary acts like a large number of utilities. This allows BusyBox to be smaller since all the built-in utility programs (we call them applets) can share code for many common operations.

You can also invoke BusyBox by issuing a command as an argument on the command line. For example, entering


        /bin/busybox ls



will also cause BusyBox to behave as 'ls'.

Of course, adding '/bin/busybox' into every command would be painful. So most people will invoke BusyBox using links to the BusyBox binary.

For example, entering


        ln -s /bin/busybox ls

        ./ls



will cause BusyBox to behave as 'ls' (if the 'ls' command has been compiled into BusyBox). Generally speaking, you should never need to make all these links yourself, as the BusyBox build system will do this for you when you run the 'make install' command.

If you invoke BusyBox with no arguments, it will provide you with a list of the applets that have been compiled into your BusyBox binary.

COMMON OPTIONS

Most BusyBox commands support the --help argument to provide a terse runtime description of their behavior. If the CONFIG_FEATURE_VERBOSE_USAGE option has been enabled, more detailed usage information will also be available.

COMMANDS

Currently defined functions include:

        [, [[, addgroup, adduser, adjtimex, ar, arp, arping, ash, awk, 

        basename, bbconfig, bbsh, bunzip2, busybox, bzcat, cal, cat, 

        catv, chattr, chcon, chgrp, chmod, chown, chpst, chroot, chrt, 

        chvt, cksum, clear, cmp, comm, cp, cpio, crond, crontab, cryptpw, 

        cut, date, dc, dd, deallocvt, delgroup, deluser, devfsd, df, 

        dhcprelay, diff, dirname, dmesg, dnsd, dos2unix, dpkg, dpkg_deb, 

        du, dumpkmap, dumpleases, e2fsck, echo, ed, eject, env, envdir, 

        envuidgid, ether_wake, expr, fakeidentd, false, fbset, fdflush, 

        fdformat, fdisk, find, fold, free, freeramdisk, fsck, fsck_minix, 

        ftpget, ftpput, fuser, getenforce, getopt, getsebool, getty, 

        grep, gunzip, gzip, halt, hdparm, head, hexdump, hostid, 

        hostname, httpd, hwclock, id, ifconfig, ifdown, ifup, inetd, 

        init, insmod, install, ip, ipaddr, ipcalc, ipcrm, ipcs, iplink, 

        iproute, iprule, iptunnel, kill, killall, killall5, klogd, lash, 

        last, length, less, ln, load_policy, loadfont, loadkmap, logger, 

        login, logname, logread, losetup, ls, lsattr, lsmod, lzmacat, 

        makedevs, matchpathcon, md5sum, mdev, mesg, mkdir, mke2fs, 

        mkfifo, mkfs_minix, mknod, mkswap, mktemp, modprobe, more, mount, 

        mountpoint, mt, mv, nameif, nc, netstat, nice, nmeter, nohup, 

        nslookup, od, openvt, passwd, patch, pidof, ping, ping6, 

        pivot_root, poweroff, printenv, printf, ps, pwd, raidautorun, 

        rdate, readahead, readlink, readprofile, realpath, reboot, 

        renice, reset, resize, rm, rmdir, rmmod, route, rpm, rpm2cpio, 

        run_parts, runcon, runlevel, runsv, runsvdir, rx, sed, 

        selinuxenabled, seq, setarch, setconsole, setenforce, 

        setkeycodes, setlogcons, setsid, setuidgid, sha1sum, sleep, 

        softlimit, sort, split, start_stop_daemon, stat, strings, stty, 

        su, sulogin, sum, sv, svlogd, swapoff, swapon, switch_root, sync, 

        sysctl, syslogd, tail, tar, taskset, tcpsvd, tee, telnet, 

        telnetd, test, tftp, time, top, touch, tr, traceroute, true, tty, 

        tune2fs, udhcpc, udhcpd, udpsvd, umount, uname, uncompress, uniq, 

        unix2dos, unlzma, unzip, uptime, usleep, uudecode, uuencode, 

        vconfig, vi, vlock, watch, watchdog, wc, wget, which, who, 

        whoami, xargs, yes, zcat, zcip



COMMAND DESCRIPTIONS

addgroup
addgroup [-g GID] [user_name] group_name

Add a group to the system or add an user to a group

Options:


        -g GID  Specify gid



adduser
adduser [OPTIONS] user_name

Add a user to the system

Options:


        -h DIR          Assign home directory DIR

        -g GECOS        Assign gecos field GECOS

        -s SHELL        Assign login shell SHELL

        -G              Add the user to existing group GROUP

        -S              Create a system user (ignored)

        -D              Do not assign a password (logins still possible via ssh)

        -H              Do not create the home directory



adjtimex
adjtimex [-q] [-o offset] [-f frequency] [-p timeconstant] [-t tick]

Read and optionally set system timebase parameters. See adjtimex(2).

Options:


        -q              Quiet

        -o offset       Time offset, microseconds

        -f frequency    Frequency adjust, integer kernel units (65536 is 1ppm)

                        (positive values make the system clock run fast)

        -t tick         Microseconds per tick, usually 10000

        -p timeconstant



ar
ar [-o] [-v] [-p] [-t] [-x] ARCHIVE FILES

Extract or list FILES from an ar archive

Options:


        -o      Preserve original dates

        -p      Extract to stdout

        -t      List

        -x      Extract

        -v      Verbose



arp
arp [-vn]   [-H type] [-i if] -a [hostname]
[-v]             [-i if] -d hostname [pub]
[-v]    [-H type] [-i if] -s hostname hw_addr [temp]
[-v]    [-H type] [-i if] -s hostname hw_addr [netmask nm] pub
[-v]    [-H type] [-i if] -Ds hostname ifa [netmask nm] pub

Manipulate the system ARP cache

Options:


        -a              Display (all) hosts

        -s              Set a new ARP entry

        -d              Delete a specified entry

        -v              Verbose

        -n              Don't resolve names

        -i if           Specify network interface (e.g. eth0)

        -D              Read <hwaddr> from given device

        -A, -p          Specify protocol family

        -H hwtype       Specify hardware address type



arping
arping [-fqbDUA] [-c count] [-w timeout] [-i device] [-s sender] target

Ping hosts by ARP requests/replies

Options:


        -f              Quit on first ARP reply

        -q              Quiet

        -b              Keep broadcasting, don't go unicast

        -D              Duplicated address detection mode

        -U              Unsolicited ARP mode, update your neighbours

        -A              ARP answer mode, update your neighbours

        -c count        Stop after sending count ARP request packets

        -w timeout      Time to wait for ARP reply, in seconds

        -i device       Outgoing interface name, default is eth0

        -s sender       Set specific sender IP address

        target          Target IP address of ARP request



ash
ash [FILE]... or: ash -c command [args]...

The ash shell (command interpreter)

awk
awk [OPTION]... [program-text] [FILE ...]

Options:


        -v var=val      Assign value 'val' to variable 'var'

        -F sep          Use 'sep' as field separator

        -f progname     Read program source from file 'progname'



basename
basename FILE [SUFFIX]

Strip directory path and suffixes from FILE. If specified, also remove any trailing SUFFIX.

Example:


        $ basename /usr/local/bin/foo

        foo

        $ basename /usr/local/bin/

        bin

        $ basename /foo/bar.txt .txt

        bar



bbconfig
bbconfig

Print the config file which built busybox

bbsh
bbsh [FILE]... or: bbsh -c command [args]...

The bbsh shell (command interpreter)

bunzip2
bunzip2 [OPTION]... [FILE]

Uncompress FILE (or standard input if FILE is '-' or omitted)

Options:


        -c      Write output to standard output

        -f      Force



busybox
busybox

Hello world!

bzcat
bzcat FILE

Uncompress to stdout

cal
cal [-jy] [[month] year]

Display a calendar

Options:


        -j      Use julian dates

        -y      Display the entire year



cat
cat [-u] [FILE]...

Concatenate FILE(s) and print them to stdout

Options:


        -u      Ignored since unbuffered i/o is always used



Example:


        $ cat /proc/uptime

        110716.72 17.67



catv
catv [-etv] [FILE]...

Display nonprinting characters as ^x or M-x

Options:


        -e      End each line with $

        -t      Show tabs as ^I

        -v      Don't use ^x or M-x escapes



chattr
chattr [-R] [-+=AacDdijsStTu] [-v version] files...

Change file attributes on an ext2 fs

Modifiers:


        -       Remove attributes

        +       Add attributes

        =       Set attributes

Attributes:




        A       Don't track atime

        a       Append mode only

        c       Enable compress

        D       Write dir contents synchronously

        d       Do not backup with dump

        i       Cannot be modified (immutable)

        j       Write all data to journal first

        s       Zero disk storage when deleted

        S       Write file contents synchronously

        t       Disable tail-merging of partial blocks with other files

        u       Allow file to be undeleted

Options:




        -R      Recursively list subdirectories

        -v      Set the file's version/generation number



chcon
chcon [OPTIONS] CONTEXT FILE...         chcon [OPTIONS] [-u USER] [-r ROLE] [-l RANGE] [-t TYPE] FILE...
        chcon [OPTIONS] --reference=RFILE FILE...

Change the security context of each FILE to CONTEXT


        -v, --verbose           Verbose

        -c, --changes           Report changes made

        -h, --no-dereference    Affect symlinks instead of their targets

        -f, --silent, --quiet   Suppress most error messages

        --reference=RFILE       Use RFILE's group instead of using a CONTEXT value

        -u, --user=USER         Set user USER in the target security context

        -r, --role=ROLE         Set role ROLE in the target security context

        -t, --type=TYPE         Set type TYPE in the target security context

        -l, --range=RANGE       Set range RANGE in the target security context

        -R, --recursive         Recurse subdirectories



chgrp
chgrp [-RhLHPcvf]... GROUP FILE...

Change the group membership of each FILE to GROUP

Options:


        -R      Recurse directories

        -h      Affect symlinks instead of symlink targets

        -L      Traverse all symlinks to directories

        -H      Traverse symlinks on command line only

        -P      Do not traverse symlinks (default)

        -c      List changed files

        -v      Verbose

        -f      Hide errors



Example:


        $ ls -l /tmp/foo

        -r--r--r--    1 andersen andersen        0 Apr 12 18:25 /tmp/foo

        $ chgrp root /tmp/foo

        $ ls -l /tmp/foo

        -r--r--r--    1 andersen root            0 Apr 12 18:25 /tmp/foo



chmod
chmod [-Rcvf] MODE[,MODE]... FILE...

Each MODE is one or more of the letters ugoa, one of the symbols +-= and one or more of the letters rwxst

Options:


        -R      Changes files and directories recursively

        -c      List changed files

        -v      List all files

        -f      Hide errors



Example:


        $ ls -l /tmp/foo

        -rw-rw-r--    1 root     root            0 Apr 12 18:25 /tmp/foo

        $ chmod u+x /tmp/foo

        $ ls -l /tmp/foo

        -rwxrw-r--    1 root     root            0 Apr 12 18:25 /tmp/foo*

        $ chmod 444 /tmp/foo

        $ ls -l /tmp/foo

        -r--r--r--    1 root     root            0 Apr 12 18:25 /tmp/foo



chown
chown [-RhLHPcvf]... OWNER[<.|:>[GROUP]] FILE...

Change the owner and/or group of each FILE to OWNER and/or GROUP

Options:


        -R      Recurse directories

        -h      Affect symlinks instead of symlink targets

        -L      Traverse all symlinks to directories

        -H      Traverse symlinks on command line only

        -P      Do not traverse symlinks (default)

        -c      List changed files

        -v      List all files

        -f      Hide errors



Example:


        $ ls -l /tmp/foo

        -r--r--r--    1 andersen andersen        0 Apr 12 18:25 /tmp/foo

        $ chown root /tmp/foo

        $ ls -l /tmp/foo

        -r--r--r--    1 root     andersen        0 Apr 12 18:25 /tmp/foo

        $ chown root.root /tmp/foo

        ls -l /tmp/foo

        -r--r--r--    1 root     root            0 Apr 12 18:25 /tmp/foo



chpst
chpst [-vP012] [-u user[:group]] [-U user[:group]] [-e dir] [-/ dir] [-n nice] [-m bytes] [-d bytes] [-o files] [-p processes] [-f bytes] [-c bytes] prog args

Change the process state and run specified program

Options:


        -u user[:grp]   Set uid and gid

        -U user[:grp]   Set environment variables UID and GID

        -e dir          Set environment variables as specified by files

                        in the directory: file=1st_line_of_file

        -/ dir          Chroot to dir

        -n inc          Add inc to nice value

        -m bytes        Limit data segment, stack segment, locked physical pages,

                        and total of all segment per process to bytes bytes each

        -d bytes        Limit data segment

        -o n            Limit the number of open file descriptors per process to n

        -p n            Limit number of processes per uid to n

        -f bytes        Limit output file size to bytes bytes

        -c bytes        Limit core file size to bytes bytes

        -v              Verbose

        -P              Run prog in a new process group

        -0              Close standard input

        -1              Close standard output

        -2              Close standard error



chroot
chroot NEWROOT [COMMAND...]

Run COMMAND with root directory set to NEWROOT

Example:


        $ ls -l /bin/ls

        lrwxrwxrwx    1 root     root          12 Apr 13 00:46 /bin/ls -> /BusyBox

        # mount /dev/hdc1 /mnt -t minix

        # chroot /mnt

        # ls -l /bin/ls

        -rwxr-xr-x    1 root     root        40816 Feb  5 07:45 /bin/ls*



chrt
chrt [OPTION]... [prio] [pid | command [arg]...]

manipulate real-time attributes of a process

Options:


        -p      operate on pid

        -r      set scheduling policy to SCHED_RR

        -f      set scheduling policy to SCHED_FIFO

        -o      set scheduling policy to SCHED_OTHER

        -m      show min and max priorities



Example:


        $ chrt -r 4 sleep 900 ; x=$!

        $ chrt -f -p 3 $x

        You need CAP_SYS_NICE privileges to set scheduling attributes of a process



chvt
chvt N

Change the foreground virtual terminal to /dev/ttyN

cksum
cksum FILES...

Calculate the CRC32 checksums of FILES

clear
clear

Clear screen

cmp
cmp [-l] [-s] FILE1 [FILE2 [SKIP1 [SKIP2]]]

Compares FILE1 vs stdin if FILE2 is not specified

Options:


        -l      Write the byte numbers (decimal) and values (octal)

                for all differing bytes

        -s      Quiet



comm
comm [-123] FILE1 FILE2

Compare FILE1 to FILE2, or to stdin if - is specified

Options:


        -1      Suppress lines unique to FILE1

        -2      Suppress lines unique to FILE2

        -3      Suppress lines common to both files



cp
cp [OPTION]... SOURCE DEST

Copy SOURCE to DEST, or multiple SOURCE(s) to DIRECTORY

Options:


        -a      Same as -dpR

        -c      Preserves security context

        -d,-P   Preserve links

        -H,-L   Dereference all symlinks (default)

        -p      Preserve file attributes if possible

        -f      Force overwrite

        -i      Prompt before overwrite

        -R,-r   Recurse directories

        -l,-s   Create (sym)links



cpio
cpio -[dimtuv][F cpiofile]

Extract or list files from a cpio archive Main operation mode:


        d       Make leading directories

        i       Extract

        m       Preserve mtime

        t       List

        v       Verbose

        u       Unconditional overwrite

        F       Input from file



crond
crond -d[#] -c <crondir> -f -b

        -d [#] -l [#] -S -L logfile -f -b -c dir

        -d num  Debug level

        -l num  Log level (8 - default)

        -S      Log to syslogd (default)

        -L file Log to file

        -f      Run in foreground

        -b      Run in background (default)

        -c dir  Working dir



crontab
crontab [-c dir] {file|-}|[-u|-l|-e|-d user]

        File <opts>  replace crontab from file

        -    <opts>  replace crontab from stdin

        -u user      specify user

        -l [user]    list crontab for user

        -e [user]    edit crontab for user

        -d [user]    delete crontab for user

        -c dir       specify crontab directory



cryptpw
cryptpw [-a des|md5] [string]

Outputs crypted string. If string isn't supplied on cmdline, reads it from stdin.

Options:


        -a      Algorithm to use (default: md5)



cut
cut [OPTION]... [FILE]...

Print selected fields from each input FILE to standard output

Options:


        -b LIST Output only bytes from LIST

        -c LIST Output only characters from LIST

        -d CHAR Use CHAR instead of tab as the field delimiter

        -s      Output only the lines containing delimiter

        -f N    Print only these fields

        -n      Ignored



Example:


        $ echo "Hello world" | cut -f 1 -d ' '

        Hello

        $ echo "Hello world" | cut -f 2 -d ' '

        world



date
date [OPTION]... [MMDDhhmm[[CC]YY][.ss]] [+FORMAT]

Display current time in the given FORMAT, or set system date

Options:


        -R              Outputs RFC-822 compliant date string

        -d STRING       Displays time described by STRING, not 'now'

        -I[TIMESPEC]    Outputs an ISO-8601 compliant date/time string

                        TIMESPEC='date' (or missing) for date only,

                        'hours', 'minutes', or 'seconds' for date and,

                        time to the indicated precision

        -D hint         Use 'hint' as date format, via strptime()

        -s              Sets time described by STRING

        -r FILE         Displays the last modification time of FILE

        -u              Prints or sets Coordinated Universal Time



Example:


        $ date

        Wed Apr 12 18:52:41 MDT 2000



dc
dc expression ...

This is a Tiny RPN calculator that understands the following operations: +, add, -, sub, *, mul, /, div, %, mod, **, exp, and, or, not, eor. For example: 'dc 2 2 add' -> 4, and 'dc 8 8 \* 2 2 + /' -> 16.

Options: p - Prints the value on the top of the stack, without altering the stack f - Prints the entire contents of the stack without altering anything o - Pops the value off the top of the stack and uses it to set the output radix


    Only 10 and 16 are supported



Example:


        $ dc 2 2 + p

        4

        $ dc 8 8 \* 2 2 + / p

        16

        $ dc 0 1 and p

        0

        $ dc 0 1 or p

        1

        $ echo 72 9 div 8 mul p | dc

        64



dd
dd [if=FILE] [of=FILE] [ibs=N] [obs=N] [bs=N] [count=N] [skip=N]          [seek=N] [conv=notrunc|noerror|sync]

Copy a file with converting and formatting

Options:


        if=FILE         Read from FILE instead of stdin

        of=FILE         Write to FILE instead of stdout

        bs=N            Read and write N bytes at a time

        ibs=N           Read N bytes at a time

        obs=N           Write N bytes at a time

        count=N         Copy only N input blocks

        skip=N          Skip N input blocks

        seek=N          Skip N output blocks

        conv=notrunc    Don't truncate output file

        conv=noerror    Continue after read errors

        conv=sync       Pad blocks with zeros



Numbers may be suffixed by c (x1), w (x2), b (x512), kD (x1000), k (x1024), MD (x1000000), M (x1048576), GD (x1000000000) or G (x1073741824)

Example:


        $ dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/ram1 bs=1M count=4

        4+0 records in

        4+0 records out



deallocvt
deallocvt [N]

Deallocate unused virtual terminal /dev/ttyN

delgroup
delgroup [USER] GROUP

Delete group GROUP from the system or user USER from group GROUP

deluser
deluser USER

Delete user USER from the system

devfsd
devfsd mntpnt [-v][-fg][-np]

Manage devfs permissions and old device name symlinks

Options:


        mntpnt  The mount point where devfs is mounted

        -v      Print the protocol version numbers for devfsd

                and the kernel-side protocol version and exits

        -fg     Run the daemon in the foreground

        -np     Exit after parsing the configuration file

                and processing synthetic REGISTER events,

                do not poll for events



df
df [-hmk] [FILESYSTEM ...]

Print the filesystem space used and space available

Options:


        -h      Print sizes in human readable format (e.g., 1K 243M 2G )

        -m      Print sizes in megabytes

        -k      Print sizes in kilobytes(default)



Example:


        $ df

        Filesystem           1k-blocks      Used Available Use% Mounted on

        /dev/sda3              8690864   8553540    137324  98% /

        /dev/sda1                64216     36364     27852  57% /boot

        $ df /dev/sda3

        Filesystem           1k-blocks      Used Available Use% Mounted on

        /dev/sda3              8690864   8553540    137324  98% /



dhcprelay
dhcprelay [client_device_list] [server_device]

Relay dhcp requests from client devices to server device

diff
diff [-abdiNqrTstw] [-L LABEL] [-S FILE] [-U LINES] FILE1 FILE2

Compare files line by line and output the differences between them. This diff implementation only supports unified diffs.

Options:


        -a      Treat all files as text

        -b      Ignore changes in the amount of whitespace

        -d      Try hard to find a smaller set of changes

        -i      Ignore case differences

        -L      Use LABEL instead of the filename in the unified header

        -N      Treat absent files as empty

        -q      Output only whether files differ

        -r      Recursively compare subdirectories

        -S      Start with FILE when comparing directories

        -T      Make tabs line up by prefixing a tab when necessary

        -s      Report when two files are the same

        -t      Expand tabs to spaces in output

        -U      Output LINES lines of context

        -w      Ignore all whitespace



dirname
dirname FILENAME

Strip non-directory suffix from FILENAME

Example:


        $ dirname /tmp/foo

        /tmp

        $ dirname /tmp/foo/

        /tmp



dmesg
dmesg [-c] [-n LEVEL] [-s SIZE]

Print or control the kernel ring buffer

Options:


        -c              Clears the ring buffer's contents after printing

        -n LEVEL        Sets console logging level

        -s SIZE         Use a buffer of size SIZE



dnsd
dnsd [-c config] [-t seconds] [-p port] [-i iface-ip] [-d]

Small and static DNS server daemon

Options:


        -c      Config filename

        -t      TTL in seconds

        -p      Listening port

        -i      Listening ip (default all)

        -d      Daemonize



dos2unix
dos2unix [option] [FILE]

Convert FILE from dos format to unix format. When no option is given, the input is converted to the opposite output format. When no file is given, use stdin for input and stdout for output.

Options:


        -u      Output will be in UNIX format

        -d      Output will be in DOS format



dpkg
dpkg [-ilCPru] [-F option] package_name

Install, remove and manage Debian packages

Options:


        -i              Install the package

        -l              List of installed packages

        -C              Configure an unpackaged package

        -F depends      Ignore dependency problems

        -P              Purge all files of a package

        -r              Remove all but the configuration files for a package

        -u              Unpack a package, but don't configure it



dpkg-deb
dpkg-deb [-cefxX] FILE [argument]

Perform actions on Debian packages (.debs)

Options:


        -c      List contents of filesystem tree

        -e      Extract control files to [argument] directory

        -f      Display control field name starting with [argument]

        -x      Extract packages filesystem tree to directory

        -X      Verbose extract



Example:


        $ dpkg-deb -X ./busybox_0.48-1_i386.deb /tmp



du
du [-aHLdclsxhmk] [FILE]...

Summarize disk space used for each FILE and/or directory. Disk space is printed in units of 1024 bytes.

Options:


        -a      Show sizes of files in addition to directories

        -H      Follow symlinks that are FILE command line args

        -L      Follow all symlinks encountered

        -d N    Limit output to directories (and files with -a) of depth < N

        -c      Output a grand total

        -l      Count sizes many times if hard linked

        -s      Display only a total for each argument

        -x      Skip directories on different filesystems

        -h      Print sizes in human readable format (e.g., 1K 243M 2G )

        -m      Print sizes in megabytes

        -k      Print sizes in kilobytes(default)



Example:


        $ du

        16      ./CVS

        12      ./kernel-patches/CVS

        80      ./kernel-patches

        12      ./tests/CVS

        36      ./tests

        12      ./scripts/CVS

        16      ./scripts

        12      ./docs/CVS

        104     ./docs

        2417    .



dumpkmap
dumpkmap > keymap

Print out a binary keyboard translation table to standard output

Example:


        $ dumpkmap > keymap



dumpleases
dumpleases [-r|-a] [-f LEASEFILE]

Display DHCP leases granted by udhcpd

Options:


        -f, --file=FILENAME     Leases file to load

        -r, --remaining         Interpret lease times as time remaining

        -a, --absolute          Interpret lease times as expire time



e2fsck
e2fsck [-panyrcdfvstDFSV] [-b superblock] [-B blocksize] [-I inode_buffer_blocks] [-P process_inode_size] [-l|-L bad_blocks_file] [-C fd] [-j external_journal] [-E extended-options] device

Check ext2/ext3 file system

Options:


        -p              Automatic repair (no questions)

        -n              Make no changes to the filesystem

        -y              Assume 'yes' to all questions

        -c              Check for bad blocks and add them to the badblock list

        -f              Force checking even if filesystem is marked clean

        -v              Verbose

        -b superblock   Use alternative superblock

        -B blocksize    Force blocksize when looking for superblock

        -j journal      Set location of the external journal

        -l file         Add to badblocks list

        -L file         Set badblocks list



echo
echo [-neE] [ARG ...]

Print the specified ARGs to stdout

Options:


        -n      Suppress trailing newline

        -e      Interpret backslash-escaped characters (i.e., \t=tab)

        -E      Disable interpretation of backslash-escaped characters



Example:


        $ echo "Erik is cool"

        Erik is cool

        $  echo -e "Erik\nis\ncool"

        Erik

        is

        cool

        $ echo "Erik\nis\ncool"

        Erik\nis\ncool



ed
ed #define ed_full_usage
eject
eject [-t] [-T] [DEVICE]

Eject specified DEVICE (or default /dev/cdrom)

Options:


        -t      Close tray

        -T      Open/close tray (toggle)



env
env [-iu] [-] [name=value]... [command]

Print the current environment or run a program after setting up the specified environment

Options:


        -, -i   Start with an empty environment

        -u      Remove variable from the environment



envdir
envdir dir prog args

Set various environment variables as specified by files in the directory dir, then run prog

envuidgid
envuidgid account prog args

Set $UID to account's uid and $GID to account's gid, then run prog

ether_wake
ether_wake [-b] [-i iface] [-p aa:bb:cc:dd[:ee:ff]] MAC

Send a magic packet to wake up sleeping machines. MAC must be a station address (00:11:22:33:44:55) or a hostname with a known 'ethers' entry.

Options:


        -b              Send wake-up packet to the broadcast address

        -i iface        Use interface ifname instead of the default "eth0"

        -p pass         Append the four or six byte password PW to the packet



expr
expr EXPRESSION

Print the value of EXPRESSION to standard output.

EXPRESSION may be:


        ARG1 |  ARG2    ARG1 if it is neither null nor 0, otherwise ARG2

        ARG1 &  ARG2    ARG1 if neither argument is null or 0, otherwise 0

        ARG1 <  ARG2    ARG1 is less than ARG2

        ARG1 <= ARG2    ARG1 is less than or equal to ARG2

        ARG1 =  ARG2    ARG1 is equal to ARG2

        ARG1 != ARG2    ARG1 is unequal to ARG2

        ARG1 >= ARG2    ARG1 is greater than or equal to ARG2

        ARG1 >  ARG2    ARG1 is greater than ARG2

        ARG1 +  ARG2    Sum of ARG1 and ARG2

        ARG1 -  ARG2    Difference of ARG1 and ARG2

        ARG1 *  ARG2    Product of ARG1 and ARG2

        ARG1 /  ARG2    Quotient of ARG1 divided by ARG2

        ARG1 %  ARG2    Remainder of ARG1 divided by ARG2

        STRING : REGEXP         Anchored pattern match of REGEXP in STRING

        match STRING REGEXP     Same as STRING : REGEXP

        substr STRING POS LENGTH Substring of STRING, POS counted from 1

        index STRING CHARS      Index in STRING where any CHARS is found, or 0

        length STRING           Length of STRING

        quote TOKEN             Interpret TOKEN as a string, even if

                                it is a keyword like 'match' or an

                                operator like '/'

        (EXPRESSION)            Value of EXPRESSION



Beware that many operators need to be escaped or quoted for shells. Comparisons are arithmetic if both ARGs are numbers, else lexicographical. Pattern matches return the string matched between \( and \) or null; if \( and \) are not used, they return the number of characters matched or 0.

fakeidentd
fakeidentd [-fiw] [-b ADDR] [STRING]

Provide fake ident (auth) service

Options:


        -f      Run in foreground

        -i      Inetd mode

        -w      Inetd 'wait' mode

        -b ADDR Bind to specified address

        STRING  Ident answer string (default is 'nobody')



false
false

Return an exit code of FALSE (1)

Example:


        $ false

        $ echo $?

        1



fbset
fbset [options] [mode]

Show and modify frame buffer settings

Example:


        $ fbset

        mode "1024x768-76"

                # D: 78.653 MHz, H: 59.949 kHz, V: 75.694 Hz

                geometry 1024 768 1024 768 16

                timings 12714 128 32 16 4 128 4

                accel false

                rgba 5/11,6/5,5/0,0/0

        endmode



fdflush
fdflush DEVICE

Force floppy disk drive to detect disk change

fdformat
fdformat [-n] DEVICE

Format floppy disk

Options:


        -n      Don't verify after format



fdisk
fdisk [-luv] [-C CYLINDERS] [-H HEADS] [-S SECTORS] [-b SSZ] DISK

Change partition table

Options:


        -l              List partition table(s)

        -u              Give Start and End in sector (instead of cylinder) units

        -s PARTITION    Give partition size(s) in blocks

        -b 2048         (for certain MO disks) use 2048-byte sectors

        -C CYLINDERS    Set the number of cylinders

        -H HEADS        Set the number of heads

        -S SECTORS      Set the number of sectors

        -v              Give fdisk version



find
find [PATH...] [EXPRESSION]

Search for files in a directory hierarchy. The default PATH is the current directory; default EXPRESSION is '-print'

EXPRESSION may consist of:


        -follow         Dereference symlinks

        -name PATTERN   File name (leading directories removed) matches PATTERN

        -print          Print (default and assumed)

        -print0         Delimit output with null characters rather than

                        newlines

        -type X         Filetype matches X (where X is one of: f,d,l,b,c,...)

        -perm PERMS     Permissions match any of (+NNN); all of (-NNN);

                        or exactly (NNN)

        -mtime DAYS     Modified time is greater than (+N); less than (-N);

                        Or exactly (N) days

        -mmin MINS      Modified time is greater than (+N); less than (-N);

                        or exactly (N) minutes

        -newer FILE     Modified time is more recent than FILE's

        -inum N         File has inode number N

        -exec CMD       Execute CMD with all instances of {} replaced by the

                        files matching EXPRESSION

        -user NAME      File is owned by user NAME (numeric user ID allowed)

        -group NAME     File belongs to group NAME (numeric group ID allowed)

        -depth          Process directory after traversing it

        -size N         File size is N

        -prune          Stop traversing current subtree

        -delete         Delete files; Turns on -depth option

        -path           Path matches PATTERN

        (EXPR)          Group an expression



Example:


        $ find / -name passwd

        /etc/passwd



fold
fold [-bs] [-w WIDTH] [FILE]

Wrap input lines in each FILE (standard input by default), writing to standard output

Options:


        -b      Count bytes rather than columns

        -s      Break at spaces

        -w      Use WIDTH columns instead of 80



free
free

Display the amount of free and used system memory

Example:


        $ free

                      total         used         free       shared      buffers

          Mem:       257628       248724         8904        59644        93124

         Swap:       128516         8404       120112

        Total:       386144       257128       129016



freeramdisk
freeramdisk DEVICE

Free all memory used by the specified ramdisk

Example:


        $ freeramdisk /dev/ram2



fsck
fsck [-ANPRTV] [ -C fd ] [-t fstype] [fs-options] [filesys ...]

Check and repair filesystems

Options:


        -A      Walk /etc/fstab and check all filesystems

        -N      Don't execute, just show what would be done

        -P      When using -A, check filesystems in parallel

        -R      When using -A, skip the root filesystem

        -T      Don't show title on startup

        -V      Verbose

        -C n    Write status information to specified filedescriptor

        -t type List of filesystem types to check



fsck.minix
fsck.minix [-larvsmf] /dev/name

Perform a consistency check for MINIX filesystems

Options:


        -l      Lists all filenames

        -r      Perform interactive repairs

        -a      Perform automatic repairs

        -v      Verbose

        -s      Outputs super-block information

        -m      Activates MINIX-like "mode not cleared" warnings

        -f      Force file system check



ftpget
ftpget [options] remote-host local-file remote-file

Retrieve a remote file via FTP

Options:


        -c, --continue  Continue a previous transfer

        -v, --verbose   Verbose

        -u, --username  Username to be used

        -p, --password  Password to be used

        -P, --port      Port number to be used



ftpput
ftpput [options] remote-host remote-file local-file

Store a local file on a remote machine via FTP

Options:


        -v, --verbose   Verbose

        -u, --username  Username to be used

        -p, --password  Password to be used

        -P, --port      Port number to be used



fuser
fuser [options] file OR port/proto

Options:


        -m      Show all processes on the same mounted fs

        -k      Kill all processes that match

        -s      Don't print or kill anything

        -4      When using port/proto only search IPv4 space

        -6      When using port/proto only search IPv6 space

        -SIGNAL When used with -k, this signal will be used to kill



getenforce
getenforce #define getenforce_full_usage
getopt
getopt [OPTIONS]...

Parse command options


        -a, --alternative               Allow long options starting with single -

        -l, --longoptions=longopts      Long options to be recognized

        -n, --name=progname             The name under which errors are reported

        -o, --options=optstring         Short options to be recognized

        -q, --quiet                     Disable error reporting by getopt(3)

        -Q, --quiet-output              No normal output

        -s, --shell=shell               Set shell quoting conventions

        -T, --test                      Test for getopt(1) version

        -u, --unquoted                  Do not quote the output



Example:


        $ cat getopt.test

        #!/bin/sh

        GETOPT=`getopt -o ab:c:: --long a-long,b-long:,c-long:: \

               -n 'example.busybox' -- "$@"`

        if [ $? != 0 ] ; then  exit 1 ; fi

        eval set -- "$GETOPT"

        while true ; do

         case $1 in

           -a|--a-long) echo "Option a" ; shift ;;

           -b|--b-long) echo "Option b, argument '$2'" ; shift 2 ;;

           -c|--c-long)

             case "$2" in

               "") echo "Option c, no argument"; shift 2 ;;

               *)  echo "Option c, argument '$2'" ; shift 2 ;;

             esac ;;

           --) shift ; break ;;

           *) echo "Internal error!" ; exit 1 ;;

         esac

        done



getsebool
getsebool -a or getsebool boolean...

        -a      Show all SELinux booleans



getty
getty [OPTIONS]... baud_rate,... line [termtype]

Open a tty, prompt for a login name, then invoke /bin/login

Options:


        -h              Enable hardware (RTS/CTS) flow control

        -i              Do not display /etc/issue before running login

        -L              Local line, so do not do carrier detect

        -m              Get baud rate from modem's CONNECT status message

        -w              Wait for a CR or LF before sending /etc/issue

        -n              Do not prompt the user for a login name

        -f issue_file   Display issue_file instead of /etc/issue

        -l login_app    Invoke login_app instead of /bin/login

        -t timeout      Terminate after timeout if no username is read

        -I initstring   Sets the init string to send before anything else

        -H login_host   Log login_host into the utmp file as the hostname



grep
grep [-HhrilLnqvsoweFEABC] PATTERN [FILEs...]

Search for PATTERN in each FILE or standard input

Options:


        -H      Prefix output lines with filename where match was found

        -h      Suppress the prefixing filename on output

        -r      Recurse subdirectories

        -i      Ignore case distinctions

        -l      List names of files that match

        -L      List names of files that do not match

        -n      Print line number with output lines

        -q      Quiet. Returns 0 if PATTERN was found, 1 otherwise

        -v      Select non-matching lines

        -s      Suppress file open/read error messages

        -c      Only print count of matching lines

        -f      Read PATTERN from file

        -o      Show only the part of a line that matches PATTERN

        -w      Match whole words only

        -e      PATTERN is a regular expression

        -F      PATTERN is a set of newline-separated strings

        -E      PATTERN is an extended regular expression

        -A      Print NUM lines of trailing context

        -B      Print NUM lines of leading context

        -C      Print NUM lines of output context



Example:


        $ grep root /etc/passwd

        root:x:0:0:root:/root:/bin/bash

        $ grep ^[rR]oo. /etc/passwd

        root:x:0:0:root:/root:/bin/bash



gunzip
gunzip [OPTION]... FILE

Uncompress FILE (or standard input if FILE is '-')

Options:


        -c      Write output to standard output

        -f      Force read when source is a terminal

        -t      Test compressed file integrity



Example:


        $ ls -la /tmp/BusyBox*

        -rw-rw-r--    1 andersen andersen   557009 Apr 11 10:55 /tmp/BusyBox-0.43.tar.gz

        $ gunzip /tmp/BusyBox-0.43.tar.gz

        $ ls -la /tmp/BusyBox*

        -rw-rw-r--    1 andersen andersen  1761280 Apr 14 17:47 /tmp/BusyBox-0.43.tar



gzip
gzip [OPTION]... [FILE]...

Compress FILE(s) with maximum compression. When FILE is '-' or unspecified, reads standard input. Implies -c.

Options:


        -c      Write output to standard output instead of FILE.gz

        -d      Decompress

        -f      Force write when destination is a terminal



Example:


        $ ls -la /tmp/busybox*

        -rw-rw-r--    1 andersen andersen  1761280 Apr 14 17:47 /tmp/busybox.tar

        $ gzip /tmp/busybox.tar

        $ ls -la /tmp/busybox*

        -rw-rw-r--    1 andersen andersen   554058 Apr 14 17:49 /tmp/busybox.tar.gz



halt
halt [-d<delay>] [-n<nosync>] [-f<force>]

Halt the system

Options:


        -d      Delay interval for halting

        -n      No call to sync()

        -f      Force halt (don't go through init)



hdparm
hdparm [options] [device] ..

         If no device name is specified try to read from stdin.



Options:


        -a      Get/set fs readahead

        -A      Set drive read-lookahead flag (0/1)

        -b      Get/set bus state (0 == off, 1 == on, 2 == tristate)

        -B      Set Advanced Power Management setting (1-255)

        -c      Get/set IDE 32-bit IO setting

        -C      Check IDE power mode status

        -d      Get/set using_dma flag

        -D      Enable/disable drive defect-mgmt

        -f      Flush buffer cache for device on exit

        -g      Display drive geometry

        -h      Display terse usage information

        -i      Display drive identification

        -I      Detailed/current information directly from drive

        -k      Get/set keep_settings_over_reset flag (0/1)

        -K      Set drive keep_features_over_reset flag (0/1)

        -L      Set drive doorlock (0/1) (removable harddisks only)

        -m      Get/set multiple sector count

        -n      Get/set ignore-write-errors flag (0/1)

        -p      Set PIO mode on IDE interface chipset (0,1,2,3,4,...)

        -P      Set drive prefetch count

        -q      Change next setting quietly

        -Q      Get/set DMA tagged-queuing depth (if supported)

        -r      Get/set readonly flag (DANGEROUS to set)

        -R      Register an IDE interface (DANGEROUS)

        -S      Set standby (spindown) timeout

        -t      Perform device read timings

        -T      Perform cache read timings

        -u      Get/set unmaskirq flag (0/1)

        -U      Un-register an IDE interface (DANGEROUS)

        -v      Defaults; same as -mcudkrag for IDE drives

        -V      Display program version and exit immediately

        -w      Perform device reset (DANGEROUS)

        -W      Set drive write-caching flag (0/1) (DANGEROUS)

        -x      Tristate device for hotswap (0/1) (DANGEROUS)

        -X      Set IDE xfer mode (DANGEROUS)

        -y      Put IDE drive in standby mode

        -Y      Put IDE drive to sleep

        -Z      Disable Seagate auto-powersaving mode

        -z      Re-read partition table



head
head [OPTION]... [FILE]...

Print first 10 lines of each FILE to standard output. With more than one FILE, precede each with a header giving the file name. With no FILE, or when FILE is -, read standard input.

Options:


        -n NUM  Print first NUM lines instead of first 10

        -c NUM  Output the first NUM bytes

        -q      Never output headers giving file names

        -v      Always output headers giving file names



Example:


        $ head -n 2 /etc/passwd

        root:x:0:0:root:/root:/bin/bash

        daemon:x:1:1:daemon:/usr/sbin:/bin/sh



hexdump
hexdump [-[bcCdefnosvx]] [OPTION] FILE

Display file(s) or standard input in a user specified format

Options:


        -b              One-byte octal display

        -c              One-byte character display

        -C              Canonical hex+ASCII, 16 bytes per line

        -d              Two-byte decimal display

        -e FORMAT STRING

        -f FORMAT FILE

        -n LENGTH       Interpret only length bytes of input

        -o              Two-byte octal display

        -s OFFSET       Skip offset bytes

        -v              Display all input data

        -x              Two-byte hexadecimal display



hostid
hostid

Print out a unique 32-bit identifier for the machine

hostname
hostname [OPTION] {hostname | -F FILE}

Get or set the hostname or DNS domain name. If a hostname is given (or FILE with the -F parameter), the host name will be set.

Options:


        -s      Short

        -i      Addresses for the hostname

        -d      DNS domain name

        -f      Fully qualified domain name

        -F FILE Use the contents of FILE to specify the hostname



Example:


        $ hostname

        sage



httpd
httpd [-c <conf file>] [-p <port>] [-i] [-f] [-u user[:grp]] [-r <realm>] [-m pass] [-h home] [-d/-e <string>]

Listen for incoming http server requests

Options:


        -c FILE         Specifies configuration file. (default httpd.conf)

        -p PORT         Server port (default 80)

        -i              Assume that we are started from inetd

        -f              Do not daemonize

        -u USER[:GRP]   Set uid/gid after binding to port

        -r REALM        Authentication Realm for Basic Authentication

        -m PASS         Crypt PASS with md5 algorithm

        -h HOME         Specifies http HOME directory (default ./)

        -e STRING       HTML encode STRING

        -d STRING       URL decode STRING



hwclock
hwclock [-r|--show] [-s|--hctosys] [-w|--systohc] [-l|--localtime] [-u|--utc] [-f FILE]

Query and set a hardware clock (RTC)

Options:


        -r      Read hardware clock and print result

        -s      Set the system time from the hardware clock

        -w      Set the hardware clock to the current system time

        -u      The hardware clock is kept in coordinated universal time

        -l      The hardware clock is kept in local time

        -f FILE Use the specified clock (e.g. /dev/rtc2)



id
id [OPTIONS]... [USERNAME]

Print information for USERNAME or the current user

Options:


        -Z      prints only the security context

        -g      Prints only the group ID

        -u      Prints only the user ID

        -n      Print a name instead of a number

        -r      Prints the real user ID instead of the effective ID



Example:


        $ id

        uid=1000(andersen) gid=1000(andersen)



ifconfig
ifconfig [-a] <interface> [<address>]

Configure a network interface

Options:


        [add <address>[/<prefixlen>]]

        [del <address>[/<prefixlen>]]

        [[-]broadcast [<address>]] [[-]pointopoint [<address>]]

        [netmask <address>] [dstaddr <address>]

        [outfill <NN>] [keepalive <NN>]

        [hw ether <address>] [metric <NN>] [mtu <NN>]

        [[-]trailers] [[-]arp] [[-]allmulti]

        [multicast] [[-]promisc] [txqueuelen <NN>] [[-]dynamic]

        [mem_start <NN>] [io_addr <NN>] [irq <NN>]

        [up|down] ...



ifdown
ifdown <-ahinv> <ifaces...>

Options:


        -a      De/configure all interfaces automatically

        -i FILE Use FILE for interface definitions

        -n      Print out what would happen, but don't do it

                (note that this option doesn't disable mappings)

        -v      Print out what would happen before doing it

        -m      Don't run any mappings

        -f      Force de/configuration



ifup
ifup <-ahinv> <ifaces...>

Options:


        -a      De/configure all interfaces automatically

        -i FILE Use FILE for interface definitions

        -n      Print out what would happen, but don't do it

                (note that this option doesn't disable mappings)

        -v      Print out what would happen before doing it

        -m      Don't run any mappings

        -f      Force de/configuration



inetd
inetd [-f] [-q len] [conf]

Listen for network connections and launch programs

Options:


        -f      Run in foreground

        -q N    Set the size of the socket listen queue to N

                (default: 128)



init
init

Init is the parent of all processes

This version of init is designed to be run only by the kernel.

BusyBox init doesn't support multiple runlevels. The runlevels field of the /etc/inittab file is completely ignored by BusyBox init. If you want runlevels, use sysvinit.

BusyBox init works just fine without an inittab. If no inittab is found, it has the following default behavior:


        ::sysinit:/etc/init.d/rcS

        ::askfirst:/bin/sh

        ::ctrlaltdel:/sbin/reboot

        ::shutdown:/sbin/swapoff -a

        ::shutdown:/bin/umount -a -r

        ::restart:/sbin/init



if it detects that /dev/console is _not_ a serial console, it will also run:


        tty2::askfirst:/bin/sh

        tty3::askfirst:/bin/sh

        tty4::askfirst:/bin/sh



If you choose to use an /etc/inittab file, the inittab entry format is as follows:


        <id>:<runlevels>:<action>:<process>




        <id>:




                WARNING: This field has a non-traditional meaning for BusyBox init!

                The id field is used by BusyBox init to specify the controlling tty for

                the specified process to run on.  The contents of this field are

                appended to "/dev/" and used as-is.  There is no need for this field to

                be unique, although if it isn't you may have strange results.  If this

                field is left blank, the controlling tty is set to the console.  Also

                note that if BusyBox detects that a serial console is in use, then only

                entries whose controlling tty is either the serial console or /dev/null

                will be run.  BusyBox init does nothing with utmp.  We don't need no

                stinkin' utmp.




        <runlevels>:




                The runlevels field is completely ignored.




        <action>:




                Valid actions include: sysinit, respawn, askfirst, wait,

                once, restart, ctrlaltdel, and shutdown.




                The available actions can be classified into two groups: actions

                that are run only once, and actions that are re-run when the specified

                process exits.




                Run only-once actions:




                        'sysinit' is the first item run on boot.  init waits until all

                        sysinit actions are completed before continuing.  Following the

                        completion of all sysinit actions, all 'wait' actions are run.

                        'wait' actions, like 'sysinit' actions, cause init to wait until

                        the specified task completes.  'once' actions are asynchronous,

                        therefore, init does not wait for them to complete.  'restart' is

                        the action taken to restart the init process.  By default this should

                        simply run /sbin/init, but can be a script which runs pivot_root or it

                        can do all sorts of other interesting things.  The 'ctrlaltdel' init

                        actions are run when the system detects that someone on the system

                        console has pressed the CTRL-ALT-DEL key combination.  Typically one

                        wants to run 'reboot' at this point to cause the system to reboot.

                        Finally the 'shutdown' action specifies the actions to taken when

                        init is told to reboot.  Unmounting filesystems and disabling swap

                        is a very good here.




                Run repeatedly actions:




                        'respawn' actions are run after the 'once' actions.  When a process

                        started with a 'respawn' action exits, init automatically restarts

                        it.  Unlike sysvinit, BusyBox init does not stop processes from

                        respawning out of control.  The 'askfirst' actions acts just like

                        respawn, except that before running the specified process it

                        displays the line "Please press Enter to activate this console."

                        and then waits for the user to press enter before starting the

                        specified process.




                Unrecognized actions (like initdefault) will cause init to emit an

                error message, and then go along with its business.  All actions are

                run in the order they appear in /etc/inittab.




        <process>:




                Specifies the process to be executed and its command line.



Example /etc/inittab file:


        # This is run first except when booting in single-user mode

        #

        ::sysinit:/etc/init.d/rcS




        # /bin/sh invocations on selected ttys

        #

        # Start an "askfirst" shell on the console (whatever that may be)

        ::askfirst:-/bin/sh

        # Start an "askfirst" shell on /dev/tty2-4

        tty2::askfirst:-/bin/sh

        tty3::askfirst:-/bin/sh

        tty4::askfirst:-/bin/sh




        # /sbin/getty invocations for selected ttys

        #

        tty4::respawn:/sbin/getty 38400 tty4

        tty5::respawn:/sbin/getty 38400 tty5




        # Example of how to put a getty on a serial line (for a terminal)

        #

        #::respawn:/sbin/getty -L ttyS0 9600 vt100

        #::respawn:/sbin/getty -L ttyS1 9600 vt100

        #

        # Example how to put a getty on a modem line

        #::respawn:/sbin/getty 57600 ttyS2




        # Stuff to do when restarting the init process

        ::restart:/sbin/init




        # Stuff to do before rebooting

        ::ctrlaltdel:/sbin/reboot

        ::shutdown:/bin/umount -a -r

        ::shutdown:/sbin/swapoff -a



insmod
insmod [OPTION]... MODULE [symbol=value]...

Load the specified kernel modules into the kernel

Options:


        -f      Force module to load into the wrong kernel version

        -k      Make module autoclean-able

        -v      Verbose

        -q      Quiet

        -L      Lock to prevent simultaneous loads of a module

        -m      Output load map to stdout

        -o NAME Set internal module name to NAME

        -x      Do not export externs



install
install [-cgmops] [sources] <dest|directory>

Copy files and set attributes

Options:


        -c      Copy the file, default

        -d      Create directories

        -g      Set group ownership

        -m      Set permission modes

        -o      Set ownership

        -p      Preserve date

        -s      Strip symbol tables

        -Z      Set security context of copy



ip
ip [OPTIONS] {address | route | link | tunnel | rule} {COMMAND}

ip [OPTIONS] OBJECT {COMMAND} where OBJECT := {address | route | link | tunnel | rule} OPTIONS := { -f[amily] { inet | inet6 | link } | -o[neline] }

ipaddr
ipaddr { {add|del} IFADDR dev STRING | {show|flush}                 [ dev STRING ] [ to PREFIX ] }

ipaddr {add|delete} IFADDR dev STRING ipaddr {show|flush} [ dev STRING ] [ scope SCOPE-ID ]


        [ to PREFIX ] [ label PATTERN ]

        IFADDR := PREFIX | ADDR peer PREFIX

        [ broadcast ADDR ] [ anycast ADDR ]

        [ label STRING ] [ scope SCOPE-ID ]

        SCOPE-ID := [ host | link | global | NUMBER ]



ipcalc
ipcalc [OPTION]... <ADDRESS>[[/]<NETMASK>] [NETMASK]

Calculate IP network settings from a IP address

Options:


        -b      --broadcast     Display calculated broadcast address

        -n      --network       Display calculated network address

        -m      --netmask       Display default netmask for IP

        -p      --prefix        Display the prefix for IP/NETMASK

        -h      --hostname      Display first resolved host name

        -s      --silent        Don't ever display error messages



ipcrm
ipcrm [-[MQS] key] [-[mqs] id]

The upper-case options MQS are used to remove a shared memory segment by a segment by a shmkey value. The lower-case options mqs are used to remove a segment by shmid value.

Options:


        -[mM]   Remove the memory segment after the last detach

        -[qQ]   Remove the message queue

        -[sS]   Remove the semaphore



ipcs
ipcs [[-smq] -i shmid] | [[-asmq] [-tcplu]]

        -i      Specify a specific resource id

Resource specification:




        -m      Shared memory segments

        -q      Message queues

        -s      Semaphore arrays

        -a      All (default)

Output format:




        -t      Time

        -c      Creator

        -p      Pid

        -l      Limits

        -u      Summary



iplink
iplink

iplink set DEVICE { up | down | arp | multicast { on | off } |


                        dynamic { on | off } |

                        mtu MTU }

iplink show [ DEVICE ]



iproute
iproute { list | flush | { add | del | change | append |                 replace | monitor } ROUTE }

iproute { list | flush } SELECTOR iproute get ADDRESS [ from ADDRESS iif STRING ]


                        [ oif STRING ]  [ tos TOS ]

iproute { add | del | change | append | replace | monitor } ROUTE




                        SELECTOR := [ root PREFIX ] [ match PREFIX ] [ proto RTPROTO ]

                        ROUTE := [ TYPE ] PREFIX [ tos TOS ] [ proto RTPROTO ]



iprule
iprule {[ list | add | del ] RULE}

iprule [ list | add | del ] SELECTOR ACTION


        SELECTOR := [ from PREFIX ] [ to PREFIX ] [ tos TOS ] [ fwmark FWMARK ]

                        [ dev STRING ] [ pref NUMBER ]

        ACTION := [ table TABLE_ID ] [ nat ADDRESS ]

                        [ prohibit | reject | unreachable ]

                        [ realms [SRCREALM/]DSTREALM ]

        TABLE_ID := [ local | main | default | NUMBER ]



iptunnel
iptunnel { add | change | del | show } [ NAME ]         [ mode { ipip | gre | sit } ]
        [ remote ADDR ] [ local ADDR ] [ ttl TTL ]

iptunnel { add | change | del | show } [ NAME ]


        [ mode { ipip | gre | sit } ] [ remote ADDR ] [ local ADDR ]

        [ [i|o]seq ] [ [i|o]key KEY ] [ [i|o]csum ]

        [ ttl TTL ] [ tos TOS ] [ [no]pmtudisc ] [ dev PHYS_DEV ]



kill
kill [-l] [-signal] process-id [process-id ...]

Send a signal (default is TERM) to the specified process(es)

Options:


        -l      List all signal names and numbers



Example:


        $ ps | grep apache

        252 root     root     S [apache]

        263 www-data www-data S [apache]

        264 www-data www-data S [apache]

        265 www-data www-data S [apache]

        266 www-data www-data S [apache]

        267 www-data www-data S [apache]

        $ kill 252



killall
killall [-l] [-q] [-signal] process-name [process-name ...]

Send a signal (default is TERM) to the specified process(es)

Options:


        -l      List all signal names and numbers

        -q      Do not complain if no processes were killed



Example:


        $ killall apache



killall5
killall5 [-l] [-signal]

Send a signal (default is TERM) to all processes outside current session

Options:


        -l      List all signal names and numbers



klogd
klogd [-c n] [-n]

Kernel logger

Options:


        -c n    Sets the default log level of console messages to n

        -n      Run as foreground process



lash
lash [FILE]... or: sh -c command [args]...

The BusyBox LAme SHell (command interpreter)

This command does not yet have proper documentation.

Use lash just as you would use any other shell. It properly handles pipes, redirects, job control, can be used as the shell for scripts, and has a sufficient set of builtins to do what is needed. It does not (yet) support Bourne Shell syntax. If you need things like ``if-then-else'', ``while'', and such use ash or bash. If you just need a very simple and extremely small shell, this will do the job.

last
last

Show listing of the last users that logged into the system

length
length STRING

Print out the length of the specified STRING

Example:


        $ length Hello

        5



less
less [-EMNmh~?] FILE1 FILE2...

View a file or list of files. The position within files can be changed, and files can be manipulated in various ways.

Options:


        -E      Quit once the end of a file is reached

        -M      Display a status line containing the current line numbers

                and the percentage through the file

        -N      Prefix line numbers to each line

        -m      Display a status line containing the percentage through the

                file

        -~      Suppress ~s displayed when input past the end of the file is

                reached



ln
ln [OPTION] TARGET... LINK_NAME|DIRECTORY

Create a link named LINK_NAME or DIRECTORY to the specified TARGET. You may use '--' to indicate that all following arguments are non-options.

Options:


        -s      Make symlinks instead of hardlinks

        -f      Remove existing destination files

        -n      No dereference symlinks - treat like normal file

        -b      Make a backup of the target (if exists) before link operation

        -S suf  Use suffix instead of ~ when making backup files



Example:


        $ ln -s BusyBox /tmp/ls

        $ ls -l /tmp/ls

        lrwxrwxrwx    1 root     root            7 Apr 12 18:39 ls -> BusyBox*



load_policy
load_policy [FILE]
loadfont
loadfont < font

Load a console font from standard input

Example:


        $ loadfont < /etc/i18n/fontname



loadkmap
loadkmap < keymap

Load a binary keyboard translation table from standard input

Example:


        $ loadkmap < /etc/i18n/lang-keymap



logger
logger [OPTION]... [MESSAGE]

Write MESSAGE to the system log. If MESSAGE is omitted, log stdin.

Options:


        -s      Log to stderr as well as the system log

        -t TAG  Log using the specified tag (defaults to user name)

        -p PRIO Enter the message with the specified priority.

                This may be numerical or a 'facility.level' pair.



Example:


        $ logger "hello"



login
login [OPTION]... [username] [ENV=VAR ...]

Begin a new session on the system

Options:


        -f      Do not authenticate (user already authenticated)

        -h      Name of the remote host for this login

        -p      Preserve environment



logname
logname

Print the name of the current user

Example:


        $ logname

        root



logread
logread [OPTION]...

Show the messages from syslogd (using circular buffer)

Options:


        -f      Output data as the log grows



losetup
losetup [-o OFFSET] [-d] LOOPDEVICE [FILE]]

(Dis)associate LOOPDEVICE with FILE, or display current associations

Options:


        -d              Disassociate LOOPDEVICE

        -o OFFSET       Start OFFSET bytes into FILE



No arguments will display all current associations. One argument (losetup /dev/loop1) will display the current association (if any), or disassociate it (with -d). The display shows the offset and filename of the file the loop device is currently bound to.

Two arguments (losetup /dev/loop1 file.img) create a new association, with an optional offset (-o 12345). Encryption is not yet supported.

ls
ls [-1AacCdeFilnpLRrSsTtuvwxXhkK] [filenames...]

List directory contents

Options:


        -1      List files in a single column

        -A      Do not list implied . and ..

        -a      Do not hide entries starting with .

        -C      List entries by columns

        -c      With -l: show ctime

        --color[={always,never,auto}]   Control coloring

        -d      List directory entries instead of contents

        -e      List both full date and full time

        -F      Append indicator (one of */=@|) to entries

        -i      List the i-node for each file

        -l      Use a long listing format

        -n      List numeric UIDs and GIDs instead of names

        -p      Append indicator (one of /=@|) to entries

        -L      List entries pointed to by symlinks

        -R      List subdirectories recursively

        -r      Sort the listing in reverse order

        -S      Sort the listing by file size

        -s      List the size of each file, in blocks

        -T NUM  Assume Tabstop every NUM columns

        -t      With -l: show modification time

        -u      With -l: show access time

        -v      Sort the listing by version

        -w NUM  Assume the terminal is NUM columns wide

        -x      List entries by lines instead of by columns

        -X      Sort the listing by extension

        -h      Print sizes in human readable format (e.g., 1K 243M 2G)

        -k      Print security context

        -K      Print security context in long format

        -Z      Print security context and permission



lsattr
lsattr [-Radlv] [files...]

List file attributes on an ext2 fs

Options:


        -R      Recursively list subdirectories

        -a      Do not hide entries starting with .

        -d      List directory entries instead of contents

        -l      Print long flag names

        -v      List the file's version/generation number



lsmod
lsmod

List the currently loaded kernel modules

lzmacat
lzmacat FILE

Uncompress to stdout

makedevs
makedevs [-d device_table] rootdir

Create a range of special files as specified in a device table. Device table entries take the form of: <type> <mode> <uid> <gid> <major> <minor> <start> <inc> <count> Where name is the file name, type can be one of:


        f       A regular file

        d       Directory

        c       Character special device file

        b       Block special device file

        p       Fifo (named pipe)

uid is the user id for the target file, gid is the group id for the

target file.  The rest of the entries (major, minor, etc) apply to

to device special files.  A '-' may be used for blank entries.



Example:


        For example:

        <name>    <type> <mode><uid><gid><major><minor><start><inc><count>

        /dev         d   755    0    0    -      -      -      -    -

        /dev/console c   666    0    0    5      1      -      -    -

        /dev/null    c   666    0    0    1      3      0      0    -

        /dev/zero    c   666    0    0    1      5      0      0    -

        /dev/hda     b   640    0    0    3      0      0      0    -

        /dev/hda     b   640    0    0    3      1      1      1    15




        Will Produce:

        /dev

        /dev/console

        /dev/null

        /dev/zero

        /dev/hda

        /dev/hda[0-15]



matchpathcon
matchpathcon [-n] [-N] [-f file_contexts_file] [-p prefix] [-V]

        -n      Do not display path

        -N      Do not use translations

        -f      Use alternate file_context file

        -p      Use prefix to speed translations

        -V      Verify file context on disk matches defaults



md5sum
md5sum [OPTION] [FILEs...]
   or: md5sum [OPTION-c [FILE]

Print or check MD5 checksums

Options: With no FILE, or when FILE is -, read standard input.


        -c      Check MD5 sums against given list



The following two options are useful only when verifying checksums:


        -s      Don't output anything, status code shows success

        -w      Warn about improperly formatted MD5 checksum lines



Example:


        $ md5sum < busybox

        6fd11e98b98a58f64ff3398d7b324003

        $ md5sum busybox

        6fd11e98b98a58f64ff3398d7b324003  busybox

        $ md5sum -c -

        6fd11e98b98a58f64ff3398d7b324003  busybox

        busybox: OK

        ^D



mdev
mdev [-s]

        -s      Scan /sys and populate /dev during system boot



Called with no options (via hotplug) it uses environment variables to determine which device to add/remove.


         The mdev config file contains lines that look like:

  hd[a-z][0-9]* 0:3 660



That's device name (with regex match), uid:gid, and permissions.

Optionally, that can be followed (on the same line) by a special character and a command line to run after creating/before deleting the corresponding device(s). The environment variable $MDEV indicates the active device node (which is useful if it's a regex match). For example:


  hdc root:cdrom 660  *ln -s $MDEV cdrom



The special characters are @ (run after creating), $ (run before deleting), and * (run both after creating and before deleting). The commands run in the /dev directory, and use system() which calls /bin/sh.

Config file parsing stops on the first matching line. If no config entry is matched, devices are created with default 0:0 660. (Make the last line match .* to override this.)

mesg
mesg [y|n]

Control write access to your terminal


        y       Allow write access to your terminal

        n       Disallow write access to your terminal



mkdir
mkdir [OPTION] DIRECTORY...

Create the DIRECTORY(ies) if they do not already exist

Options:


        -m      Set permission mode (as in chmod), not rwxrwxrwx - umask

        -p      No error if existing, make parent directories as needed

        -Z      Set security context



Example:


        $ mkdir /tmp/foo

        $ mkdir /tmp/foo

        /tmp/foo: File exists

        $ mkdir /tmp/foo/bar/baz

        /tmp/foo/bar/baz: No such file or directory

        $ mkdir -p /tmp/foo/bar/baz



mke2fs
mke2fs [-c|-l filename] [-b block-size] [-f fragment-size] [-g blocks-per-group] [-i bytes-per-inode] [-j] [-J journal-options] [-N number-of-inodes] [-n] [-m reserved-blocks-percentage] [-o creator-os] [-O feature[,...]] [-q] [r fs-revision-level] [-E extended-options] [-v] [-F] [-L volume-label] [-M last-mounted-directory] [-S] [-T filesystem-type] device [blocks-count]

        -b size         Block size in bytes

        -c              Check for bad blocks before creating

        -E opts         Set extended options

        -f size         Fragment size in bytes

        -F              Force (ignore sanity checks)

        -g num          Number of blocks in a block group

        -i ratio        The bytes/inode ratio

        -j              Create a journal (ext3)

        -J opts         Set journal options (size/device)

        -l file         Read bad blocks list from file

        -L lbl          Set the volume label

        -m percent      Percent of fs blocks to reserve for admin

        -M dir          Set last mounted directory

        -n              Do not actually create anything

        -N num          Number of inodes to create

        -o os           Set the 'creator os' field

        -O features     Dir_index/filetype/has_journal/journal_dev/sparse_super

        -q              Quiet

        -r rev          Set filesystem revision

        -S              Write superblock and group descriptors only

        -T fs-type      Set usage type (news/largefile/largefile4)

        -v              Verbose



mkfifo
mkfifo [OPTIONS] name

Create a named pipe (identical to 'mknod name p')

Options:


        -m      Create the pipe using the specified mode (default a=rw)

        -Z      Set security context



mkfs.minix
mkfs.minix [-c | -l filename] [-nXX] [-iXX] /dev/name [blocks]

Make a MINIX filesystem

Options:


        -c              Check the device for bad blocks

        -n [14|30]      Specify the maximum length of filenames

        -i INODES       Specify the number of inodes for the filesystem

        -l FILENAME     Read the bad blocks list from FILENAME

        -v              Make a Minix version 2 filesystem



mknod
mknod [OPTIONS] NAME TYPE MAJOR MINOR

Create a special file (block, character, or pipe)

Options:


        -m      Create the special file using the specified mode (default a=rw)



TYPEs include:


        b:      Make a block (buffered) device

        c or u: Make a character (un-buffered) device

        p:      Make a named pipe. MAJOR and MINOR are ignored for named pipes

        -Z      Set security context



Example:


        $ mknod /dev/fd0 b 2 0

        $ mknod -m 644 /tmp/pipe p



mkswap
mkswap [-c] [-v0|-v1] device [block-count]

Prepare a disk partition to be used as swap partition

Options:


        -c              Check for read-ability

        -v0             Make version 0 swap [max 128 Megs]

        -v1             Make version 1 swap [big!] (default for kernels > 2.1.117)

        block-count     Number of block to use (default is entire partition)



mktemp
mktemp [-dq] TEMPLATE

Create a temporary file with its name based on TEMPLATE. TEMPLATE is any name with six 'Xs' (i.e., /tmp/temp.XXXXXX).

Options:


        -d      Make a directory instead of a file

        -q      Fail silently if an error occurs



Example:


        $ mktemp /tmp/temp.XXXXXX

        /tmp/temp.mWiLjM

        $ ls -la /tmp/temp.mWiLjM

        -rw-------    1 andersen andersen        0 Apr 25 17:10 /tmp/temp.mWiLjM



modprobe
modprobe [-knqrsv] MODULE [symbol=value ...]

Options:


        -k      Make module autoclean-able

        -n      Just show what would be done

        -q      Quiet

        -r      Remove module (stacks) or do autoclean

        -s      Report via syslog instead of stderr

        -v      Verbose



modprobe can (un)load a stack of modules, passing each module options (when loading). modprobe uses a configuration file to determine what option(s) to pass each module it loads.

The configuration file is searched (in order) amongst:


    /etc/modprobe.conf (2.6 only)

    /etc/modules.conf

    /etc/conf.modules (deprecated)



They all have the same syntax (see below). If none is present, it is _not_ an error; each loaded module is then expected to load without options. Once a file is found, the others are tested for.

/etc/modules.conf entry format:


  alias <alias_name> <mod_name>

    Makes it possible to modprobe alias_name, when there is no such module.

    It makes sense if your mod_name is long, or you want a more representative

    name for that module (eg. 'scsi' in place of 'aha7xxx').

    This makes it also possible to use a different set of options (below) for

    the module and the alias.

    A module can be aliased more than once.




  options <mod_name|alias_name> <symbol=value ...>

    When loading module mod_name (or the module aliased by alias_name), pass

    the "symbol=value" pairs as option to that module.



Sample /etc/modules.conf file:


  options tulip irq=3

  alias tulip tulip2

  options tulip2 irq=4 io=0x308



Other functionality offered by 'classic' modprobe is not available in this implementation.

If module options are present both in the config file, and on the command line, then the options from the command line will be passed to the module _after_ the options from the config file. That way, you can have defaults in the config file, and override them for a specific usage from the command line.

Example:


        (with the above /etc/modules.conf):




        $ modprobe tulip

           will load the module 'tulip' with default option 'irq=3'




        $ modprobe tulip irq=5

           will load the module 'tulip' with option 'irq=5', thus overriding the default




        $ modprobe tulip2

           will load the module 'tulip' with default options 'irq=4 io=0x308',

           which are the default for alias 'tulip2'




        $ modprobe tulip2 irq=8

           will load the module 'tulip' with default options 'irq=4 io=0x308 irq=8',

           which are the default for alias 'tulip2' overridden by the option 'irq=8'




           from the command line




        $ modprobe tulip2 irq=2 io=0x210

           will load the module 'tulip' with default options 'irq=4 io=0x308 irq=4 io=0x210',

           which are the default for alias 'tulip2' overridden by the options 'irq=2 io=0x210'




           from the command line



more
more [FILE ...]

View FILE or standard input one screenful at a time

Example:


        $ dmesg | more



mount
mount [flags] DEVICE NODE [-o options,more-options]

Mount a filesystem. Filesystem autodetection requires /proc be mounted.

Options:


        -a              Mount all filesystems in fstab

        -f              "Fake" Add entry to mount table but don't mount it

        -n              Don't write a mount table entry

        -o option       One of many filesystem options, listed below

        -r              Mount the filesystem read-only

        -t fs-type      Specify the filesystem type

        -w              Mount for reading and writing (default)



Options for use with the "-o" flag:


        loop            Ignored (loop devices are autodetected)

        [a]sync         Writes are asynchronous / synchronous

        [no]atime       Disable / enable updates to inode access times

        [no]diratime    Disable / enable atime updates to directories

        [no]dev         Allow use of special device files / disallow them

        [no]exec        Allow use of executable files / disallow them

        [no]suid        Allow set-user-id-root programs / disallow them

        [r]shared       Convert [recursively] to a shared subtree

        [r]slave        Convert [recursively] to a slave subtree

        [r]private      Convert [recursively] to a private subtree

        [un]bindable    Make mount point [un]able to be bind mounted

        bind            Bind a directory to an additional location

        move            Relocate an existing mount point

        remount         Remount a mounted filesystem, changing its flags

        ro/rw           Mount for read-only / read-write



There are EVEN MORE flags that are specific to each filesystem You'll have to see the written documentation for those filesystems

Returns 0 for success, number of failed mounts for -a, or errno for one mount.

Example:


        $ mount

        /dev/hda3 on / type minix (rw)

        proc on /proc type proc (rw)

        devpts on /dev/pts type devpts (rw)

        $ mount /dev/fd0 /mnt -t msdos -o ro

        $ mount /tmp/diskimage /opt -t ext2 -o loop

        $ mount cd_image.iso mydir



mountpoint
mountpoint [-q] <[-d] DIR | -x DEVICE>

mountpoint checks if the directory is a mountpoint

Options:


        -q      Quiet

        -d      Print major/minor device number of the filesystem

        -x      Print major/minor device number of the blockdevice



Example:


        $ mountpoint /proc

        /proc is not a mountpoint

        $ mountpoint /sys

        /sys is a mountpoint



mt
mt [-f device] opcode value

Control magnetic tape drive operation

Available Opcodes:

bsf bsfm bsr bss datacompression drvbuffer eof eom erase fsf fsfm fsr fss load lock mkpart nop offline ras1 ras2 ras3 reset retension rewind rewoffline seek setblk setdensity setpart tell unload unlock weof wset

mv
mv [OPTION]... SOURCE DEST or: mv [OPTION]... SOURCE... DIRECTORY

Rename SOURCE to DEST, or move SOURCE(s) to DIRECTORY

Options:


        -f      Don't prompt before overwriting

        -i      Interactive, prompt before overwrite



Example:


        $ mv /tmp/foo /bin/bar



nameif
nameif [-s] [-c FILE] [{IFNAME MACADDR}]

Rename network interface while it in the down state

Options:


        -c FILE         Use configuration file (default is /etc/mactab)

        -s              Use syslog (LOCAL0 facility)

        IFNAME MACADDR  new_interface_name interface_mac_address



Example:


        $ nameif -s dmz0 00:A0:C9:8C:F6:3F

         or

        $ nameif -c /etc/my_mactab_file



nc
nc [-options] hostname port - connect nc [-options] -l -p port [hostname] [port] - listen

         -l             Listen mode, for inbound connects

B<-n>           Do not do DNS resolution

B<-s> addr              Local address

B<-p> port              Local port

B<-u>           UDP mode

B<-v>           Verbose (cumulative: B<-vv>)

B<-w> secs              Timeout for connects and final net reads

B<-i> sec               Delay interval for lines sent" /* ", ports scanned" */ 

B<-o> file              Hex dump of traffic

B<-z>           Zero-I/O mode (scanning)

B<-e> prog [args]       Program to exec after connect (must be last)/*   "

B<-r>           Randomize local and remote ports" */




         To use netcat as a terminal emulator on a serial port:



$ stty 115200 -F /dev/ttyS0 $ stty raw -echo -ctlecho && nc -f /dev/ttyS0

Example:


        $ nc foobar.somedomain.com 25

        220 foobar ESMTP Exim 3.12 #1 Sat, 15 Apr 2000 00:03:02 -0600

        help

        214-Commands supported:

        214-    HELO EHLO MAIL RCPT DATA AUTH

        214     NOOP QUIT RSET HELP

        quit

        221 foobar closing connection



netstat
netstat [-laentuwxrW]

Display networking information

Options:


        -l      Display listening server sockets

        -a      Display all sockets (default: connected)

        -e      Display other/more information

        -n      Don't resolve names

        -t      Tcp sockets

        -u      Udp sockets

        -w      Raw sockets

        -x      Unix sockets

        -r      Display routing table

        -W      Display with no column truncation



nice
nice [-n ADJUST] [COMMAND [ARG] ...]

Run a program with modified scheduling priority

Options:


        -n ADJUST       Adjust the scheduling priority by ADJUST



nmeter
nmeter format_string

Monitor system in real time

Format specifiers: %Nc or %[cN]    Monitor CPU. N - bar size, default 10


                (displays: S:system U:user N:niced D:iowait I:irq i:softirq)

%[niface]       Monitor network interface 'iface'

%m              Monitor allocated memory

%[mf]           Monitor free memory

%[mt]           Monitor total memory

%s              Monitor allocated swap

%f              Monitor number of used file descriptors

%Ni             Monitor total/specific IRQ rate

%x              Monitor context switch rate

%p              Monitor forks

%[pn]           Monitor # of processes

%b              Monitor block io

%Nt             Show time (with N decimal points)

%Nd             Milliseconds between updates (default=1000)

%r              Print <cr> instead of <lf> at EOL



Example:


        nmeter '%250d%t %20c int %i bio %b mem %m forks%p'



nohup
nohup COMMAND [ARGS]

Run a command immune to hangups, with output to a non-tty

Example:


        $ nohup make &



nslookup
nslookup [HOST] [SERVER]

Query the nameserver for the IP address of the given HOST optionally using a specified DNS server

Example:


        $ nslookup localhost

        Server:     default

        Address:    default




        Name:       debian

        Address:    127.0.0.1



od
od [-aBbcDdeFfHhIiLlOovXx] [FILE]

Write an unambiguous representation, octal bytes by default, of FILE to standard output. With no FILE, or when FILE is -, read standard input.

openvt
openvt <vtnum> <COMMAND> [ARGS...]

Start a command on a new virtual terminal

Example:


        openvt 2 /bin/ash



passwd
passwd [OPTION] [name]

Change a user password. If no name is specified, changes the password for the current user.

Options:


        -a      Define which algorithm shall be used for the password

                (choices: des, md5)

" /* ", sha1)" */       B<-d>   Delete the password for the specified user account




        -l      Locks (disables) the specified user account

        -u      Unlocks (re-enables) the specified user account



patch
patch [-p<num>] [-i <diff>]

        -p NUM  Strip NUM leading components from file names

        -i DIFF Read DIFF instead of stdin



Example:


        $ patch -p1 < example.diff

        $ patch -p0 -i example.diff



pidof
pidof process-name [OPTION] [process-name ...]

List the PIDs of all processes with names that match the names on the command line


        USAGE_PIDOF      

        -s      Display only a single PID

        -o      Omit given pid

                Use %PPID to omit the parent pid of pidof itself



Example:


        $ pidof init

        1

        $ pidof /bin/sh

        20351 5973 5950

        $ pidof /bin/sh -o %PPID

        20351 5950



ping
ping [OPTION]... host

Send ICMP ECHO_REQUEST packets to network hosts

Options:


        -4, -6          Force IPv4 or IPv6 hostname resolution

        -c CNT          Send only CNT pings

        -s SIZE         Send SIZE data bytes in packets (default=56)

        -I iface/IP     Use interface or IP address as source

        -q              Quiet, only displays output at start

                        and when finished



Example:


        $ ping localhost

        PING slag (127.0.0.1): 56 data bytes

        64 bytes from 127.0.0.1: icmp_seq=0 ttl=255 time=20.1 ms




        --- debian ping statistics ---

        1 packets transmitted, 1 packets received, 0% packet loss

        round-trip min/avg/max = 20.1/20.1/20.1 ms



ping6
ping6 [OPTION]... host

Send ICMP ECHO_REQUEST packets to network hosts

Options:


        -c CNT          Send only CNT pings

        -s SIZE         Send SIZE data bytes in packets (default=56)

        -I iface/IP     Use interface or IP address as source

        -q              Quiet, only displays output at start

                        and when finished



Example:


        $ ping6 ip6-localhost

        PING ip6-localhost (::1): 56 data bytes

        64 bytes from ::1: icmp6_seq=0 ttl=64 time=20.1 ms




        --- ip6-localhost ping statistics ---

        1 packets transmitted, 1 packets received, 0% packet loss

        round-trip min/avg/max = 20.1/20.1/20.1 ms



pivot_root
pivot_root NEW_ROOT PUT_OLD

Move the current root file system to PUT_OLD and make NEW_ROOT the new root file system

poweroff
poweroff [-d<delay>] [-n<nosync>] [-f<force>]

Halt and shut off power

Options:


        -d      Delay interval for halting

        -n      No call to sync()

        -f      Force power off (don't go through init)



printenv
printenv [VARIABLES...]

Print all or part of environment. If no environment VARIABLE specified, print them all.

printf
printf FORMAT [ARGUMENT...]

Format and print ARGUMENT(s) according to FORMAT, where FORMAT controls the output exactly as in C printf

Example:


        $ printf "Val=%d\n" 5

        Val=5



ps
ps

Report process status


        USAGE_PS         

        -Z      Show SE Linux context

        w       Wide output



Example:


        $ ps

          PID  Uid      Gid State Command

            1 root     root     S init

            2 root     root     S [kflushd]

            3 root     root     S [kupdate]

            4 root     root     S [kpiod]

            5 root     root     S [kswapd]

          742 andersen andersen S [bash]

          743 andersen andersen S -bash

          745 root     root     S [getty]

         2990 andersen andersen R ps



pwd
pwd

Print the full filename of the current working directory

Example:


        $ pwd

        /root



raidautorun
raidautorun DEVICE

Tell the kernel to automatically search and start RAID arrays

Example:


        $ raidautorun /dev/md0



rdate
rdate [-sp] HOST

Get and possibly set the system date and time from a remote HOST

Options:


        -s      Set the system date and time (default)

        -p      Print the date and time



readahead
readahead [FILE]...

Preload FILE(s) in RAM cache so that subsequent reads for thosefiles do not block on disk I/O

readlink
readlink [-f] FILE

Display the value of a symlink

Options:


        -f      Canonicalize by following all symlinks



readprofile
readprofile [OPTIONS]...

Options:


        -m <mapfile>    (Default: /boot/System.map)

        -p <profile>    (Default: /proc/profile)

        -M <mult>       Set the profiling multiplier to <mult>

        -i              Print only info about the sampling step

        -v              Verbose

        -a              Print all symbols, even if count is 0

        -b              Print individual histogram-bin counts

        -s              Print individual counters within functions

        -r              Reset all the counters (root only)

        -n              Disable byte order auto-detection



realpath
realpath pathname ...

Return the absolute pathnames of given argument

reboot
reboot [-d<delay>] [-n<nosync>] [-f<force>]

Reboot the system

Options:


        -d      Delay interval for rebooting

        -n      No call to sync()

        -f      Force reboot (don't go through init)



renice
renice {{-n INCREMENT} | PRIORITY} [[ -p | -g | -u ] ID ...]

Change priority of running processes

Options:


        -n      Adjusts current nice value (smaller is faster)

        -p      Process id(s) (default)

        -g      Process group id(s)

        -u      Process user name(s) and/or id(s)



reset
reset

Reset the screen

resize
resize

Resize the screen

rm
rm [OPTION]... FILE...

Remove (unlink) the FILE(s). You may use '--' to indicate that all following arguments are non-options.

Options:


        -i      Always prompt before removing each destination

        -f      Remove existing destinations, never prompt

        -r,-R   Remove the contents of directories recursively



Example:


        $ rm -rf /tmp/foo



rmdir
rmdir [OPTION]... DIRECTORY...

Remove the DIRECTORY, if it is empty

Example:


        # rmdir /tmp/foo



rmmod
rmmod [OPTION]... [MODULE]...

Unload the specified kernel modules from the kernel

Options:


        -a      Remove all unused modules (recursively)



Example:


        $ rmmod tulip



route
route [{add|del|delete}]

Edit the kernel's routing tables

Options:


        -n      Dont resolve names

        -e      Display other/more information

        -A inet{6}      Select address family



rpm
rpm -i -q[ildc]p package.rpm

Manipulate RPM packages

Options:


        -i      Install package

        -q      Query package

        -p      Query uninstalled package

        -i      Show information

        -l      List contents

        -d      List documents

        -c      List config files



rpm2cpio
rpm2cpio package.rpm

Output a cpio archive of the rpm file

run-parts
run-parts [-t] [-l] [-a ARG] [-u MASK] DIRECTORY

Run a bunch of scripts in a directory

Options:


        -t      Prints what would be run, but does not actually run anything

        -a ARG  Pass ARG as an argument for every program invoked

        -u MASK Set the umask to MASK before executing every program

        -l      Prints names of all matching files even when they are not executable



Example:


        $ run-parts -a start /etc/init.d

        $ run-parts -a stop=now /etc/init.d




        Let's assume you have a script foo/dosomething:

        #!/bin/sh

        for i in $*; do eval $i; done ; unset i

        case "$1" in

        start*) echo starting something ;;

        stop*) set -x ; shutdown -h $stop ;;

        esac




        Running this yields:

        $run-parts -a stop=+4m foo/

        + shutdown -h +4m



runcon
runcon [-c] [-u USER] [-r ROLE] [-t TYPE] [-l RANGE] COMMAND [args]
       runcon CONTEXT COMMAND [args]

runcon [-c] [-u USER] [-r ROLE] [-t TYPE] [-l RANGE] COMMAND [args] runcon CONTEXT COMMAND [args] Run a program in a different security context


        CONTEXT         Complete security context

        -c, --compute   Compute process transition context before modifying

        -t, --type=TYPE Type (for same role as parent)

        -u, --user=USER User identity

        -r, --role=ROLE Role

        -l, --range=RNG Levelrange



runlevel
runlevel [utmp]

Example:


        $ runlevel /var/run/utmp

        N 2



runsv
runsv dir

Start and monitor a service and optionally an appendant log service

runsvdir
runsvdir [-P] dir

Start a runsv process for each subdirectory

rx
rx FILE

Receive a file using the xmodem protocol

Example:


        $ rx /tmp/foo



sed
sed [-efinr] pattern [files...]

Options:


        -e script       Add the script to the commands to be executed

        -f scriptfile   Add script-file contents to the

                        commands to be executed

        -i              Edit files in-place

        -n              Suppress automatic printing of pattern space

        -r              Use extended regular expression syntax



If no -e or -f is given, the first non-option argument is taken as the sed script to interpret. All remaining arguments are names of input files; if no input files are specified, then the standard input is read. Source files will not be modified unless -i option is given.

Example:


        $ echo "foo" | sed -e 's/f[a-zA-Z]o/bar/g'

        bar



selinuxenabled
selinuxenabled #define selinuxenabled_full_usage
seq
seq [first [increment]] last

Print numbers from FIRST to LAST, in steps of INCREMENT. FIRST, INCREMENT default to 1

Arguments:


        LAST

        FIRST LAST

        FIRST INCREMENT LAST



setarch
setarch <personality> <program> [args ...]

Personality may be:


        linux32         Set 32bit uname emulation

        linux64         Set 64bit uname emulation



setconsole
setconsole [-r|--reset] [DEVICE]

Redirect system console output to DEVICE (default: /dev/tty)

Options:


        -r      Reset output to /dev/console



setenforce
setenforce [ Enforcing | Permissive | 1 | 0 ]
setkeycodes
setkeycodes SCANCODE KEYCODE ...

Set entries into the kernel's scancode-to-keycode map, allowing unusual keyboards to generate usable keycodes.

SCANCODE may be either xx or e0xx (hexadecimal), and KEYCODE is given in decimal

Example:


        $ setkeycodes e030 127



setlogcons
setlogcons N

Redirect the kernel output to console N (0 for current)

setsid
setsid program [arg ...]

Run any program in a new session by calling setsid() before exec'ing the rest of its arguments. See setsid(2) for details.

setuidgid
setuidgid account prog args

Set uid and gid to account's uid and gid, removing all supplementary groups, then run prog

sha1sum
sha1sum [OPTION] [FILEs...]
   or: sha1sum [OPTION-c [FILE]

Print or check SHA1 checksums. With no FILE, or when FILE is -, read standard input.

Options:


        -c      Check SHA1 sums against given list



The following two options are useful only when verifying checksums:


        -s      Don't output anything, status code shows success

        -w      Warn about improperly formatted SHA1 checksum lines



sleep
sleep [N]...

                 Pause for a time equal to the total of the args given, where each arg can

have an optional suffix of (s)econds, (m)inutes, (h)ours, or (d)ays



Example:


        $ sleep 2

        [2 second delay results]

        $ sleep 1d 3h 22m 8s

        [98528 second delay results]



softlimit
softlimit [-a allbytes] [-c corebytes] [-d databytes] [-f filebytes] [-l lockbytes] [-m membytes] [-o openfiles] [-p processes] [-r residentbytes] [-s stackbytes] [-t cpusecs] prog args

Set soft resource limits, then run prog

Options:


        -m n    Same as -d n -s n -l n -a n

        -d n    Limit the data segment per process to n bytes

        -s n    Limit the stack segment per process to n bytes

        -l n    Limit the locked physical pages per process to n bytes

        -a n    Limit the total of all segments per process to n bytes

        -o n    Limit  the number of open file descriptors per process to n

        -p n    Limit the number of processes per uid to n

Options controlling file sizes:




        -f n    Limit output file sizes to n bytes

        -c n    Limit core file sizes to n bytes

Efficiency opts:




        -r n    Limit the resident set size to n bytes. This limit is not

                enforced unless physical memory is full

        -t n    Limit the CPU time to n seconds. This limit is not enforced

                except that the process receives a SIGXCPU signal after n seconds



Some options may have no effect on some operating systems n may be =, indicating that soft limit should be set equal to hard limit

sort
sort [-nrugMcszbdfimSTokt] [-o outfile] [-k start[.offset][opts][,end[.offset][opts]] [-t char] [FILE]...

Sort lines of text in the specified files

Options:


        -b      Ignore leading blanks

        -c      Check whether input is sorted

        -d      Dictionary order (blank or alphanumeric only)

        -f      Ignore case

        -g      General numerical sort

        -i      Ignore unprintable characters

        -k      Specify sort key

        -M      Sort month

        -n      Sort numbers

        -o      Output to file

        -k      Sort by key

        -t      Use key separator other than whitespace

        -r      Reverse sort order

        -s      Stable (don't sort ties alphabetically)

        -u      Suppress duplicate lines

        -z      Input terminated by nulls, not newlines

        -mST    Ignored for GNU compatibility



Example:


        $ echo -e "e\nf\nb\nd\nc\na" | sort

        a

        b

        c

        d

        e

        f

        $ echo -e "c 3\nb 2\nd 2" | $SORT -k 2,2n -k 1,1r

        d 2

        b 2

        c 3



split
split [OPTION] [INPUT [PREFIX]]

Options:


        -b n[k|m] Split by bytes

        -l n      Split by lines

        -a n      Use n letters as suffix



Example:


        $ split TODO foo

        $ cat TODO | split -a 2 -l 2 TODO_



start-stop-daemon
start-stop-daemon [OPTIONS] [--start|--stop] ... [-- arguments...]

Start and stop services

Options:


        -S|--start                      Start

        -K|--stop                       Stop

        -a|--startas <pathname>         Starts process specified by pathname

        -b|--background                 Force process into background

        -u|--user <username>|<uid>      Stop this user's processes

        -x|--exec <executable>          Program to either start or check

        -m|--make-pidfile               Create the -p file and enter pid in it

        -n|--name <process-name>        Stop processes with this name

        -p|--pidfile <pid-file>         Save or load pid using a pid-file

        -q|--quiet                      Quiet

        -o|--oknodo                     Exit status 0 if nothing done

        -v|--verbose                    Verbose

        -N|--nicelevel <N>              Add N to process's nice level

        -s|--signal <signal>            Signal to send (default TERM)

        -c|--chuid <user>[:[<group>]]   Change to specified user/group



stat
stat [OPTION] FILE...

Display file (default) or filesystem status

Options:


        -c fmt  Use the specified format

        -f      Display filesystem status

        -L,-l   Dereference links

        -t      Display info in terse form

        -Z      Print security context



Valid format sequences for files:


 %a     Access rights in octal

 %A     Access rights in human readable form

 %b     Number of blocks allocated (see %B)

 %B     The size in bytes of each block reported by %b

 %d     Device number in decimal

 %D     Device number in hex

 %f     Raw mode in hex

 %F     File type

 %g     Group ID of owner

 %G     Group name of owner

 %h     Number of hard links

 %i     Inode number

 %n     File name

 %N     Quoted file name with dereference if symlink

 %o     I/O block size

 %s     Total size, in bytes

 %t     Major device type in hex

 %T     Minor device type in hex

 %u     User ID of owner

 %U     User name of owner

 %x     Time of last access

 %X     Time of last access as seconds since Epoch

 %y     Time of last modification

 %Y     Time of last modification as seconds since Epoch

 %z     Time of last change

 %Z     Time of last change as seconds since Epoch



Valid format sequences for file systems:


 %a     Free blocks available to non-superuser

 %b     Total data blocks in file system

 %c     Total file nodes in file system

 %d     Free file nodes in file system

 %f     Free blocks in file system

 %C     Security context in SELinux

 %i     File System ID in hex

 %l     Maximum length of filenames

 %n     File name

 %s     Block size (for faster transfer)

 %S     Fundamental block size (for block counts)

 %t     Type in hex

 %T     Type in human readable form



strings
strings [-afo] [-n length] [file ... ]

Display printable strings in a binary file

Options:


        -a      Scan the whole files (this is the default)

        -f      Precede each string with the name of the file where it was found

        -n N    Specifies that at least N characters forms a sequence (default 4)

        -o      Each string is preceded by its decimal offset in the file



stty
stty [-a|g] [-F DEVICE] [SETTING]...

Without arguments, prints baud rate, line discipline, and deviations from stty sane

Options:


        -F DEVICE       Open device instead of stdin

        -a              Print all current settings in human-readable form

        -g              Print in stty-readable form

        [SETTING]       See manpage



su
su [OPTION]... [-] [username]

Change user id or become root

Options:


        -p, -m  Preserve environment

        -c      Command to pass to 'sh -c'

        -s      Shell to use instead of default shell



sulogin
sulogin [OPTION]... [tty-device]

Single user login

Options:


        -t      Timeout



sum
sum [rs] [files...]

Checksum and count the blocks in a file

Options:


        -r      Use BSD sum algorithm (1K blocks)

        -s      Use System V sum algorithm (512byte blocks)



sv
sv [-v] [-w sec] command service...

Report the current status and control the state of services monitored by the runsv supervisor

svlogd
svlogd [-ttv] [-r c] [-R abc] [-l len] [-b buflen] dir...

Continuously read log data from standard input, optionally filter log messages, and write the data to one or more automatically rotated logs

swapoff
swapoff [-a] [DEVICE]

Stop swapping virtual memory pages on DEVICE

Options:


        -a      Stop swapping on all swap devices



swapon
swapon [-a] [DEVICE]

Start swapping virtual memory pages on DEVICE

Options:


        -a      Start swapping on all swap devices



switch_root
switch_root [-c /dev/console] NEW_ROOT NEW_INIT [ARGUMENTS_TO_INIT]

Use from PID 1 under initramfs to free initramfs, chroot to NEW_ROOT, and exec NEW_INIT

Options:


        -c      Redirect console to device on new root



sync
sync

Write all buffered filesystem blocks to disk

sysctl
sysctl [OPTIONS]... [VALUE]...

Configure kernel parameters at runtime

Options:


        -n      Use this option to disable printing of the key name when printing values

        -w      Use this option when you want to change a sysctl setting

        -p      Load in sysctl settings from the file specified or /etc/sysctl.conf if none given

        -a      Display all values currently available

        -A      Display all values currently available in table form



Example:


        sysctl [-n] variable ...

        sysctl [-n] -w variable=value ...

        sysctl [-n] -a

        sysctl [-n] -p <file>   (default /etc/sysctl.conf)

        sysctl [-n] -A



syslogd
syslogd [OPTION]...

System logging utility. Note that this version of syslogd ignores /etc/syslog.conf.

Options:


        -n              Run as foreground process

        -O FILE         Use an alternate log file (default=/var/log/messages)

        -l n            Sets the local log level of messages to n

        -S              Make logging output smaller

        -s SIZE         Max size (KB) before rotate (default=200KB, 0=off)

        -b NUM          Number of rotated logs to keep (default=1, max=99, 0=purge)

        -R HOST[:PORT]  Log to IP or hostname on PORT (default PORT=514/UDP)

        -L              Log locally and via network logging (default is network only)

        -C[size(KiB)]   Log to a shared mem buffer (read the buffer using logread)



Example:


        $ syslogd -R masterlog:514

        $ syslogd -R 192.168.1.1:601



tail
tail [OPTION]... [FILE]...

Print last 10 lines of each FILE to standard output. With more than one FILE, precede each with a header giving the file name. With no FILE, or when FILE is -, read standard input.

Options:


        -c N[kbm]       Output the last N bytes

        -n N[kbm]       Print last N lines instead of last 10

        -f              Output data as the file grows

        -q              Never output headers giving file names

        -s SEC          Wait SEC seconds between reads with -f

        -v              Always output headers giving file names



If the first character of N (bytes or lines) is a '+', output begins with the Nth item from the start of each file, otherwise, print the last N items in the file. N bytes may be suffixed by k (x1024), b (x512), or m (1024^2).

Example:


        $ tail -n 1 /etc/resolv.conf

        nameserver 10.0.0.1



tar
tar -[czjaZxtvO] [-X FILE] [-f TARFILE] [-C DIR] [FILE(s)] ...

Create, extract, or list files from a tar file

Options:


        c       Create

        x       Extract

        t       List



Archive format selection:


        z       Filter the archive through gzip

        j       Filter the archive through bzip2

        a       Filter the archive through lzma

        Z       Filter the archive through compress



File selection:


        f       Name of TARFILE or "-" for stdin

        O       Extract to stdout

        exclude File to exclude

        X       File with names to exclude

        C       Change to directory DIR before operation

        v       Verbose



Example:


        $ zcat /tmp/tarball.tar.gz | tar -xf -

        $ tar -cf /tmp/tarball.tar /usr/local



taskset
taskset [OPTIONS] [mask] [pid | command [arg]...]

Set or get CPU affinity

Options:


        -p      Operate on an existing PID



Example:


        $ taskset 0x7 ./dgemm_test&

        $ taskset -p 0x1 $!

        pid 4790's current affinity mask: 7

        pid 4790's new affinity mask: 1

        $ taskset 0x7 /bin/sh -c './taskset -p 0x1 $$'

        pid 6671's current affinity mask: 1

        pid 6671's new affinity mask: 1

        $ taskset -p 1

        pid 1's current affinity mask: 3



tcpsvd
tcpsvd [-hEv] [-c n] [-C n:msg] [-b n] [-u user] [-l name] ip port prog...

Creates TCP socket, binds it to ip:port and listens on it for incoming connections. For each connection it runs prog.

ip           IP to listen on. '0' = all
port            Port to listen on
prog [arg]      Program to run
-l name         Local hostname (else looks up local hostname in DNS)
-u user[:group] Change to user/group after bind
-c n            Handle up to n connections simultaneously
-b n            Allow a backlog of approximately n TCP SYNs
-C n[:msg]      Allow only up to n connections from the same IP


                New connections from this IP address are closed

                immediately. 'msg' is written to the peer before close

B<-h>           Look up peer's hostname

B<-E>           Do not set up environment variables

B<-v>           Verbose



tee
tee [OPTION]... [FILE]...

Copy standard input to each FILE, and also to standard output

Options:


        -a      Append to the given FILEs, do not overwrite

        -i      Ignore interrupt signals (SIGINT)



Example:


        $ echo "Hello" | tee /tmp/foo

        $ cat /tmp/foo

        Hello



telnet
telnet HOST [PORT]

Connect to remote telnet server

telnetd
telnetd [OPTION]

Handle incoming telnet connections

Options:


        -l LOGIN        Exec LOGIN on connect

        -f issue_file   Display issue_file instead of /etc/issue

        -p PORT         Port to listen to

        -b ADDR         Address to bind to

        -F              Stay in foreground

        -i              Run as inetd subservice



test
test EXPRESSION
  or   [ EXPRESSION ]

Check file types and compares values returning an exit code determined by the value of EXPRESSION

Example:


        $ test 1 -eq 2

        $ echo $?

        1

        $ test 1 -eq 1

        $ echo $?

        0

        $ [ -d /etc ]

        $ echo $?

        0

        $ [ -d /junk ]

        $ echo $?

        1



tftp
tftp [OPTION]... HOST [PORT]

Transfer a file from/to tftp server using ``octet'' mode

Options:


        -l FILE Local FILE

        -r FILE Remote FILE

        -g      Get file

        -p      Put file

        -b SIZE Transfer blocks of SIZE octets



time
time [OPTION]... COMMAND [ARGS...]

Run the program COMMAND with arguments ARGS. When COMMAND finishes, COMMAND's resource usage information is displayed.

Options:


        -v      Verbose



top
top [-b] [-n count] [-d seconds]

Provide a view of process activity in real time. Read the status of all processes from /proc each <seconds> and show the status for however many processes will fit on the screen.

touch
touch [-c] FILE [FILE ...]

Update the last-modified date on the given FILE[s]

Options:


        -c      Do not create any files



Example:


        $ ls -l /tmp/foo

        /bin/ls: /tmp/foo: No such file or directory

        $ touch /tmp/foo

        $ ls -l /tmp/foo

        -rw-rw-r--    1 andersen andersen        0 Apr 15 01:11 /tmp/foo



tr
tr [-cds] STRING1 [STRING2]

Translate, squeeze, and/or delete characters from standard input, writing to standard output

Options:


        -c      Take complement of STRING1

        -d      Delete input characters coded STRING1

        -s      Squeeze multiple output characters of STRING2 into one character



Example:


        $ echo "gdkkn vnqkc" | tr [a-y] [b-z]

        hello world



traceroute
traceroute [-FIldnrv] [-f 1st_ttl] [-m max_ttl] [-p port#] [-q nqueries]         [-s src_addr] [-t tos] [-w wait] [-g gateway] [-i iface]
        [-z pausemsecs] host [data size]

Trace the route ip packets follow going to "host

Options:


        -F      Set the don't fragment bit

        -I      Use ICMP ECHO instead of UDP datagrams

        -l      Display the ttl value of the returned packet

        -d      Set SO_DEBUG options to socket

        -n      Print hop addresses numerically rather than symbolically

        -r      Bypass the normal routing tables and send directly to a host

        -v      Verbose

        -m max_ttl      Max time-to-live (max number of hops)

        -p port#        Base UDP port number used in probes

                        (default is 33434)

        -q nqueries     Number of probes per 'ttl' (default 3)

        -s src_addr     IP address to use as the source address

        -t tos          Type-of-service in probe packets (default 0)

        -w wait         Time in seconds to wait for a response to a probe

                        (default 3 sec)

        -g              Specify a loose source route gateway (8 max)



true
true

Return an exit code of TRUE (0)

Example:


        $ true

        $ echo $?

        0



tty
tty

Print the file name of the terminal connected to standard input

Options:


        -s      Print nothing, only return an exit status



Example:


        $ tty

        /dev/tty2



tune2fs
tune2fs [-c max-mounts-count] [-e errors-behavior] [-g group] [-i interval[d|m|w]] [-j] [-J journal-options] [-l] [-s sparse-flag] [-m reserved-blocks-percent] [-o [^]mount-options[,...]] [-r reserved-blocks-count] [-u user] [-C mount-count] [-L volume-label] [-M last-mounted-dir] [-O [^]feature[,...]] [-T last-check-time] [-U UUID] device

Adjust filesystem options on ext[23] filesystems

udhcpc
udhcpc [-Cfbnqtv] [-c CID] [-V VCLS] [-H HOSTNAME] [-i INTERFACE] [-p pidfile] [-r IP] [-s script]

        -V,--vendorclass=CLASSID        Set vendor class identifier

        -i,--interface=INTERFACE        Interface to use (default: eth0)

        -H,-h,--hostname=HOSTNAME       Client hostname

        -c,--clientid=CLIENTID  Set client identifier

        -C,--clientid-none      Suppress default client identifier

        -p,--pidfile=file       Store process ID of daemon in file

        -r,--request=IP         IP address to request (default: none)

        -s,--script=file        Run file at dhcp events (default: /usr/share/udhcpc/default.script)

        -t,--retries=NUM        Send up to NUM request packets

        -f,--foreground Do not fork after getting lease

        -b,--background Fork to background if lease cannot be immediately negotiated

        -n,--now        Exit with failure if lease cannot be immediately negotiated

        -q,--quit       Quit after obtaining lease

        -R,--release    Release IP on quit

        -v,--version    Display version



udhcpd
udhcpd [configfile]
udpsvd
udpsvd [-hEv] [-c n] [-u user] [-l name] ip port prog

Creates UDP socket, binds it to ip:port and listens on it for incoming packets. For each packet it runs prog (redirecting all further packets with same peer ip:port to it).

ip           IP to listen on. '0' = all
port            Port to listen on
prog [arg]      Program to run
-l name         Local hostname (else looks up local hostname in DNS)
-u user[:group] Change to user/group after bind
-c n            Handle up to n connections simultaneously
-h              Look up peer's hostname
-E              Do not set up environment variables
-v              Verbose

umount
umount [flags] FILESYSTEM|DIRECTORY

Unmount file systems

Options:


        -a      Unmount all file systems in /etc/mtab

        -n      Don't erase /etc/mtab entries

        -r      Try to remount devices as read-only if mount is busy

        -l      Lazy umount (detach filesystem)

        -f      Force umount (i.e., unreachable NFS server)

        -D      Do not free loop device (if a loop device has been used)



Example:


        $ umount /dev/hdc1



uname
uname [OPTION]...

Print certain system information. With no OPTION, same as -s.

Options:


        -a      Print all information

        -m      The machine (hardware) type

        -n      Print the machine's network node hostname

        -r      Print the operating system release

        -s      Print the operating system name

        -p      Print the host processor type

        -v      Print the operating system version



Example:


        $ uname -a

        Linux debian 2.4.23 #2 Tue Dec 23 17:09:10 MST 2003 i686 GNU/Linux



uncompress
uncompress [-c] [-f] [ name ... ]

Uncompress .Z file[s]

Options:


        -c      Extract to stdout

        -f      Force overwrite an existing file



uniq
uniq [-fscdu]... [INPUT [OUTPUT]]

Discard all but one of successive identical lines from INPUT (or standard input), writing to OUTPUT (or standard output)

Options:


        -c      Prefix lines by the number of occurrences

        -d      Only print duplicate lines

        -u      Only print unique lines

        -f N    Skip the first N fields

        -s N    Skip the first N chars (after any skipped fields)



Example:


        $ echo -e "a\na\nb\nc\nc\na" | sort | uniq

        a

        b

        c



unix2dos
unix2dos [option] [FILE]

Convert FILE from unix format to dos format. When no option is given, the input is converted to the opposite output format. When no file is given, use stdin/stdout.

Options:


        -u      Output will be in UNIX format

        -d      Output will be in DOS format



unlzma
unlzma [OPTION]... [FILE]

Uncompress FILE (or standard input if FILE is '-' or omitted)

Options:


        -c      Write output to standard output

        -f      Force



unzip
unzip [-opts[modifiers]] file[.zip] [list] [-x xlist] [-d exdir]

Extract files from ZIP archives

Options:


        -l      List archive contents (short form)

        -n      Never overwrite existing files (default)

        -o      Overwrite files without prompting

        -p      Send output to stdout

        -q      Quiet

        -x      Exclude these files

        -d      Extract files into this directory



uptime
uptime

Display the time since the last boot

Example:


        $ uptime

          1:55pm  up  2:30, load average: 0.09, 0.04, 0.00



usleep
usleep N

Pause for N microseconds

Example:


        $ usleep 1000000

        [pauses for 1 second]



uudecode
uudecode [FILE]...

Uudecode a file

Options:


        -o FILE Direct output to FILE



Example:


        $ uudecode -o busybox busybox.uu

        $ ls -l busybox

        -rwxr-xr-x   1 ams      ams        245264 Jun  7 21:35 busybox



uuencode
uuencode [OPTION] [INFILE] REMOTEFILE

Uuencode a file

Options:


        -m      Use base64 encoding per RFC1521



Example:


        $ uuencode busybox busybox

        begin 755 busybox

        <encoded file snipped>

        $ uudecode busybox busybox > busybox.uu

        $



vconfig
vconfig COMMAND [OPTIONS] ...

Create and remove virtual ethernet devices

Options:


        add             [interface-name] [vlan_id]

        rem             [vlan-name]

        set_flag        [interface-name] [flag-num] [0 | 1]

        set_egress_map  [vlan-name] [skb_priority] [vlan_qos]

        set_ingress_map [vlan-name] [skb_priority] [vlan_qos]

        set_name_type   [name-type]



vi
vi [OPTION] [FILE]...

Edit FILE

Options:


        -R      Read-only - do not write to the file



vlock
vlock [OPTIONS]

Lock a virtual terminal. A password is required to unlock.

Options:


        -a      Lock all VTs



watch
watch [-n <seconds>] [-t] COMMAND...

Execute a program periodically

Options:


        -n      Loop period in seconds - default is 2

        -t      Don't print header



Example:


        $ watch date

        Mon Dec 17 10:31:40 GMT 2000

        Mon Dec 17 10:31:42 GMT 2000

        Mon Dec 17 10:31:44 GMT 2000



watchdog
watchdog [-t <seconds>] [-F] DEV

Periodically write to watchdog device DEV

Options:


        -t      Timer period in seconds - default is 30

        -F      Stay in the foreground and don't fork



wc
wc [OPTION]... [FILE]...

Print line, word, and byte counts for each FILE, and a total line if more than one FILE is specified. With no FILE, read standard input.

Options:


        -c      Print the byte counts

        -l      Print the newline counts

        -L      Print the length of the longest line

        -w      Print the word counts



Example:


        $ wc /etc/passwd

             31      46    1365 /etc/passwd



wget
wget [-c|--continue] [-s|--spider] [-q|--quiet] [-O|--output-document file]                 [--header 'header: value'] [-Y|--proxy on/off] [-P DIR]
                [-U|--user-agent agent] url

Retrieve files via HTTP or FTP

Options:


        -s      Spider mode - only check file existence

        -c      Continue retrieval of aborted transfer

        -q      Quiet

        -P      Set directory prefix to DIR

        -O      Save to filename ('-' for stdout)

        -U      Adjust 'User-Agent' field

        -Y      Use proxy ('on' or 'off')



which
which [COMMAND ...]

Locate a COMMAND

Example:


        $ which login

        /bin/login



who
who

Print the current user names and related information

whoami
whoami

Print the user name associated with the current effective user id

xargs
xargs [OPTIONS] [COMMAND] [ARGS...]

Execute COMMAND on every item given by standard input

Options:


        -p      Prompt the user about whether to run each command

        -r      Do not run command for empty read lines

        -x      Exit if the size is exceeded

        -0      Input filenames are terminated by a null character

        -t      Print the command line on stderr before executing it



Example:


        $ ls | xargs gzip

        $ find . -name '*.c' -print | xargs rm



yes
yes [OPTION]... [STRING]...

Repeatedly output a line with all specified STRING(s), or 'y'

zcat
zcat FILE

Uncompress to stdout

zcip
zcip [OPTIONS] ifname script

Manage a ZeroConf IPv4 link-local address

Options:


        -f              Foreground mode

        -q              Quit after address (no daemon)

        -r 169.254.x.x  Request this address first

        -v              Verbose



LIBC NSS

GNU Libc (glibc) uses the Name Service Switch (NSS) to configure the behavior of the C library for the local environment, and to configure how it reads system data, such as passwords and group information. This is implemented using an /etc/nsswitch.conf configuration file, and using one or more of the /lib/libnss_* libraries. BusyBox tries to avoid using any libc calls that make use of NSS. Some applets however, such as login and su, will use libc functions that require NSS.

If you enable CONFIG_USE_BB_PWD_GRP, BusyBox will use internal functions to directly access the /etc/passwd, /etc/group, and /etc/shadow files without using NSS. This may allow you to run your system without the need for installing any of the NSS configuration files and libraries.

When used with glibc, the BusyBox 'networking' applets will similarly require that you install at least some of the glibc NSS stuff (in particular, /etc/nsswitch.conf, /lib/libnss_dns*, /lib/libnss_files*, and /lib/libresolv*).

Shameless Plug: As an alternative, one could use a C library such as uClibc. In addition to making your system significantly smaller, uClibc does not require the use of any NSS support files or libraries.

MAINTAINER

Denis Vlasenko <vda.linux@googlemail.com>

AUTHORS

The following people have contributed code to BusyBox whether they know it or not. If you have written code included in BusyBox, you should probably be listed here so you can obtain your bit of eternal glory. If you should be listed here, or the description of what you have done needs more detail, or is incorect, please send in an update.

Emanuele Aina <emanuele.aina@tiscali.it>         run-parts

Erik Andersen <andersen@codepoet.org>


    Tons of new stuff, major rewrite of most of the

    core apps, tons of new apps as noted in header files.

    Lots of tedious effort writing these boring docs that

    nobody is going to actually read.



Laurence Anderson <l.d.anderson@warwick.ac.uk>


    rpm2cpio, unzip, get_header_cpio, read_gz interface, rpm



Jeff Angielski <jeff@theptrgroup.com>


    ftpput, ftpget



Edward Betts <edward@debian.org>


    expr, hostid, logname, whoami



John Beppu <beppu@codepoet.org>


    du, nslookup, sort



Brian Candler <B.Candler@pobox.com>


    tiny-ls(ls)



Randolph Chung <tausq@debian.org>


    fbset, ping, hostname



Dave Cinege <dcinege@psychosis.com>


    more(v2), makedevs, dutmp, modularization, auto links file,

    various fixes, Linux Router Project maintenance



Jordan Crouse <jordan@cosmicpenguin.net>


        ipcalc



Magnus Damm <damm@opensource.se>


    tftp client insmod powerpc support



Larry Doolittle <ldoolitt@recycle.lbl.gov>


    pristine source directory compilation, lots of patches and fixes.



Glenn Engel <glenne@engel.org>


    httpd



Gennady Feldman <gfeldman@gena01.com>


    Sysklogd (single threaded syslogd, IPC Circular buffer support,

    logread), various fixes.



Karl M. Hegbloom <karlheg@debian.org>


    cp_mv.c, the test suite, various fixes to utility.c, &c.



Daniel Jacobowitz <dan@debian.org>


    mktemp.c



Matt Kraai <kraai@alumni.cmu.edu>


    documentation, bugfixes, test suite



Stephan Linz <linz@li-pro.net>


        ipcalc, Red Hat equivalence



John Lombardo <john@deltanet.com>


    tr



Glenn McGrath <bug1@iinet.net.au>


    Common unarchving code and unarchiving applets, ifupdown, ftpgetput,

    nameif, sed, patch, fold, install, uudecode.

    Various bugfixes, review and apply numerous patches.



Manuel Novoa III <mjn3@codepoet.org>


    cat, head, mkfifo, mknod, rmdir, sleep, tee, tty, uniq, usleep, wc, yes,

    mesg, vconfig, make_directory, parse_mode, dirname, mode_string,

    get_last_path_component, simplify_path, and a number trivial libbb routines




    also bug fixes, partial rewrites, and size optimizations in

    ash, basename, cal, cmp, cp, df, du, echo, env, ln, logname, md5sum, mkdir,

    mv, realpath, rm, sort, tail, touch, uname, watch, arith, human_readable,

    interface, dutmp, ifconfig, route



Vladimir Oleynik <dzo@simtreas.ru>


    cmdedit; xargs(current), httpd(current);

    ports: ash, crond, fdisk, inetd, stty, traceroute, top;

    locale, various fixes

    and irreconcilable critic of everything not perfect.



Bruce Perens <bruce@pixar.com>


    Original author of BusyBox in 1995, 1996. Some of his code can

    still be found hiding here and there...



Tim Riker <Tim@Rikers.org>


    bug fixes, member of fan club



Kent Robotti <robotti@metconnect.com>


    reset, tons and tons of bug reports and patches.



Chip Rosenthal <chip@unicom.com>, <crosenth@covad.com>


    wget - Contributed by permission of Covad Communications



Pavel Roskin <proski@gnu.org>


    Lots of bugs fixes and patches.



Gyepi Sam <gyepi@praxis-sw.com>


    Remote logging feature for syslogd



Linus Torvalds <torvalds@transmeta.com>


    mkswap, fsck.minix, mkfs.minix



Mark Whitley <markw@codepoet.org>


    grep, sed, cut, xargs(previous),

    style-guide, new-applet-HOWTO, bug fixes, etc.



Charles P. Wright <cpwright@villagenet.com>


    gzip, mini-netcat(nc)



Enrique Zanardi <ezanardi@ull.es>


    tarcat (since removed), loadkmap, various fixes, Debian maintenance



Tito Ragusa <farmatito@tiscali.it>


        devfsd and size optimizations in strings, openvt and deallocvt.



Évite toujours le concours de bottage de cul avec un porc-épic.
-+- Terry Pratchett, Sourcellerie -+-