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abcm2ps

Langue: en

Autres versions - même langue

Version: 336627 (ubuntu - 24/10/10)

Section: 1 (Commandes utilisateur)

NAME

abcm2ps --- translate ABC music notation to PostScript

SYNOPSIS

abcm2ps [options] [abc-file [file-options]] [...]

abcm2ps [-h]

DESCRIPTION

abcm2ps translates tunes written in the ABC music notation format to customary sheet music scores in PostScript. It is based on abc2ps 1.2.5 and was developed mainly to print Baroque organ scores that have independent voices played on multiple keyboards and a pedal-board. The program has since been extended to support various other notation conventions in use for sheet music.

Options given immediately after the command name apply to the run as a whole; options given after an ABC file name apply to that file.

Formatting parameters can also be set in `format files' and in the ABC files themselves.

OPTIONS

-0
Split tunes across page breaks if necessary.
+0
Start a new page if a tune doesn't fit on the current one (default).
-1
Output one tune per page.
+1
Output multiple tunes per page (default).
-a a
Maximal horizontal compression when staff breaks are chosen automatically. Must be between 0 and 1 (default: 0.65)
-B b
Try to typeset b bars on each staff line.
+B
Don't try to typeset a fixed number of bars on each staff line (default).
-b b
Start measure numbering at b.
-C
Obsolete option; ignored.
-c
The continuation symbol is implicitly appended to each music line. This amounts to automatic line breaking.
+c
Automatic line breaking is turned off (default).
-D directory
Search format files in directory.
-d length
Set the vertical interstaff space to length (default: 46pt)
-E
Output is generated in EPS format, one file per page.
+E
Output is generated in multipage PS format (default).
-e list
Select which tunes from an ABC file to print. list is a comma-separated list of tune numbers (as per the `X:' header). The -e option must occur after an ABC file name and applies to that file. Ranges of tune numbers may be specified like t1-t2; t2 may be omitted which means `all remaining tunes until the end of file'. Note that filtering may cause problems, e.g., with global (non-tune) definitions in the ABC file.
-F file
Read the format file file.fmt.
+F
Do not read the default format file.
-f
Enable flat beams in bagpipe tunes.
-G
Omit slurs on grace notes.
+G
Draw slurs on grace notes (default).
-g
Obsolete option; ignored.
-H
Display the current values of the formatting parameters.
-h
Display program usage hints and quit.
-I length
Indent the first line of the tune by length (default: 0).
-jb[b]
Output a measure number every b measures. If b is 0, the measure number appears at the left of each staff. The trailing b causes a box to be drawn around each measure number (default: no measure numbering).
+j
Don't output measure numbers.
-k
Equivalent to -j.
+k
Equivalent to +j.
-Lenc
Set the language encoding to ISO-Latin-enc, where enc can take on values from 0 to 6. The value 0 is equivalent to 1 but no PostScript encoding table is output (default: 0).
-l
Generate landscape output.
+l
Generate portrait output (default).
-M
Suppress lyrics.
+M
Include lyrics (default).
-m length
Set the left margin to length (default: 1.8cm)
-N[mode]
Number pages according to the mode:
0
no page numbers
1
page numbers at top left of page
2
page numbers at top right of page
3
page numbers at top left of even-numbered pages, top right of odd-numbered pages
4
page numbers at top right of even-numbered pages, top left of odd-numbered pages
For compatibility, -N is equivalent to -N2 (default: -N0).
+N
Equivalent to -N0 (no page numbering).
-n
Include notes and history from ABC tune `N:' fields.
+n
Omit notes and history from ABC tune `N:' fields (default).
-O name
Define the output file name. By default, the output file name is `Out.ps' for PostScript output and `Outnnn.eps' for EPS output (see -E). If this option is given, the output name will be name or namennn.eps, respectively. If name is `=', the output file name will be the name of the ABC source file with the extension `.ps' or `.eps'. If name is `-', the output is written to stdout.
+O
Revert to the default output file name (`Out.ps' or `Outnnn.eps')
-o
Obsolete option; ignored.
-P
Obsolete option; ignored.
-p
Obsolete option; ignored.
-Q
Print tempo (metronome) indications (default).
+Q
Omit tempo (metronome) indications.
-R
Obsolete option; ignored.
-S
Obsolete option; ignored.
-s scale
Set the page scale factor to scale. Note that the header and footer are not scaled (default: 0.75).
-Tn[voice], +Tn[voice]
Activate (or deactivate) tabulature drawing. n is the tabulature number as defined in %%tabulature, and voice is the voice name, full name or subname as found in V:. When this is absent, the option applies to all voices. Up to 4 such options may be given. See also format.txt.
-u
Use implicit decorations as in abc2ps (default: off)
-V
Output version number and quit.
-v
Obsolete option; ignored.
-w length
Adjust the right margin such that the staff width is length (default: none)
-x
Include the `X:' tune number in the title.
+x
Do not include the `X:' tune number in the title (default).

FORMATTING PARAMETERS

The following formatting parameters can be used in format files. They can also occur in ABC files when they are preceded by %%, or as I: headers (even in the middle of a music line).

abc2pscompat boolean
If true, set M as the +tenuto+ decoration and do a pitch translation if the notes are too high for a bass clef. Also, an octave translation is applied to bass and alto parts.
alignbars int
Align the bars of the next int lines of music. This works only when the music contains only one voice (no V: or %%staves) (default: 0).
aligncomposer int
Define where to display the composer field. A negative value displays it flush-left, a value of zero centered, and a positive value flush-right (default: 1).
annotationfont font [encoding] size
Set the annotation font to font with size size (default: Helvetica 12)
autoclef boolean
Adjust the clefs when they are not defined in `K:' or `V:' lines (default: 1).
barnumbers int
Synonym for measurenb.
barsperstaff int
Try to typeset with int bars per line (default: 0; command line: -b, +b)
beginps
Start a sequence of PostScript code lines extending until the next endps line. This parameter may only occur within ABC and format files, not on the command line.
botmargin length
Set the bottom margin to length (default: 1cm)
breakoneoln boolean
If this is set, on finding an end-of-line (eoln), pretend that there was a space before the next note or rest. This prevents a beam to be continued between two input lines (default: 1).
bstemdown boolean
If this is set, the stem of the note on the middle of the staff extends downwards. Otherwise it extends up or down depending on the preceding note (default: 0).
comball boolean
If this is set together with combinevoices, voice combination takes place in all cases. Otherwise, notes which are too close together in pitch are not combined.
combinevoices boolean
If this is set, simultaneous notes of the same duration belonging to voices on the same staff are combined into chords (default: 0).
composerfont font [encoding] size
Set the `composer' font to font with size size (default: Times-Italic 14)
composerspace length
Set the vertical space before the composer name to length (Default: 0.2cm)
contbarnb boolean
If this is not set, the bar numbers of second repeats are set to those of the corresponding first repeats. If this is set, all bars are numbered sequentially (default: 0).
continueall boolean
If this is set to true, ignore the line breaks in a tune (default: 0; command line: -c, +c)
dateformat format
Format for date and time output. The admissible values of this parameter are described in the documentation for the strftime(3) C library function. Note that percent signs need to be escaped (default: "b e, Y H:M")
deco name c_func ps_func h wl wr [str]
Define a decoration. This is an experimental feature which is subject to change in future releases and requires good knowledge of the internals of abcm2ps. See the files format.txt and deco.abc for details.
dynalign boolean
When set, horizontally align dynamic marks (default: 1)
encoding enc
Set the language encoding to ISO-Latin-enc, where enc can take values from 0 to 6. The value 0 is the same as 1, but no PostScript encoding table is output.
Alternatively, enc may take one of the predefined values us-ascii, iso-8859-1, iso-8859-2, iso-8859-3, iso-8859-4, iso-8859-9, iso-8859-10, or native (meaning encoding vectors will not be changed). If enc is anything else, it must be a string which is taken to be PostScript commands that set up a suitable encoding vector.
exprabove boolean
Draw expression decorations above the staff. If neither exprabove nor exprbelow are `true', expression decorations are drawn above the staff if there are lyrics on the staff, and below otherwise. exprabove takes precedence over exprbelow (default: 0).
exprbelow boolean
Draw expression decorations below the staff. If neither exprabove nor exprbelow are `true', expression decorations are drawn above the staff if there are lyrics on the staff, and below otherwise. exprabove takes precedence over exprbelow (default: 0).
flatbeams boolean
Draw flat beams in bagpipe tunes (default: 0; command line: -f)
font font [encoding]
Define a font and its encoding. Use this parameter when you want to refer to specific fonts in ABC files/tunes. It must occur before any PostScript output is written, generally in a format file. encoding defaults to the encoding set up by the encoding parameter.
footer text
Define the text printed at the bottom of every page. There may be one or two lines. When there are two lines, these must be separated by the characters `\n' (not a real newline). Each of the lines consists of three areas, left, center and right, which are separated by tabs (real tabs, not '\t') and may be empty - if the left area is empty, the text must be quoted.
If the footer begins with `-', it will not be printed on the first page of the document.
The `$' character introduces variable expansion:
$d
The date and time of last modification of the ABC file
$D
The current date and time
$F
The current input file name
$Ix
The value of header x of the tune
$P
The current page number
$P0
The current pagenumber (when even)
$P1
The current pagenumber (when odd)
$T
The current tune title
$V
`abcm2ps-' followed by the program's version number
For example, the command line option -N3 is equivalent to `%%header "$P0 $P1"' (note the two tabs). (Default: none)
footerfont font [encoding] size
Set the footer font to font with size size (default: Times-Roman 12)
format filename
Read the format file filename (default: none).
freegchord boolean
Prevent the characters `#', `b' and `=' to be displayed as the sharp sign, the flat sign, and the natural sign, respectively, in guitar chords. When this flag is set, the display of the accidentals may be forced by escaping the characters (`\#', `\b' and `\=') (default: 0)
gchordbox boolean
Draw a box around guitar chords. Can be set to `true' using `%%gchordfont' below. (Default: 0)
gchordfont font [encoding] size [box]
Set the guitar chord font to font with size size. If box is specified, draw a box around guitar chords (default: Helvetica 12, no box)
graceslurs boolean
Draw slurs on grace notes if true (default: 1; command line: -G, +G)
gracespace float float float
Define the space before, between, and after the grace notes (default: 6.5 8.0 12.0)
header text
Define the text printed at the top of every page. See the footer parameter above for the syntax (default: none)
headerfont font [encoding] size
Set the header font to font with size size (default: Times-Roman 12)
historyfont font [encoding] size
Set the font for history entries to font with size size (default: Times-Roman 16)
hyphencont boolean
If an under-staff lyrics line ends with a hyphen, put another hyphen at the beginning of the next line (default:0)
indent length
Indent the first line of a tune by length (default:0; command line: -I)
infofont font [encoding] size
Set the information line font to font with size size (default: Times-Italic 14)
infoline boolean
Display the rhythm (`R:'), the origin (`O:'), and the area (`A:') of the tune on a single `information line' (default: 0)
infoname letter tag
Define the headers to be printed after a tune when writehistory is set. The tag is printed before the actual header value. By default, this outputs the R, B, S, D, N, Z, and H headers, with tags `Rhythm:', `Book:', `Source:', `Discography:', `Notes:', `Transcription:', and `History:', respectively.
infospace length
Set the vertical space before the information line to length (default: 0).
landscape      boolean
Set page orientation to landscape if true (default: 0;
command line: -l, +l).
leftmargin length
Set the left margin to length (default: 1.8cm; command line: -m)
lineskipfac float
Set the factor for spacing between lines of text to float times the font size (default: 1.1)
maxshrink      float
Set how much the output may be compressed horizontally
when staff breaks are chosen automatically. float must be between 0 and 1 (default: 0.65; command line: -a)
maxstaffsep length
Set the maximum vertical inter-staff space to length (default: 800pt)
maxsysstaffsep length
Set the maximum vertical system inter-staff space to length (default: 800pt)
measurebox boolean
Draw a box around the measure numbers if true (default: 0; command line: -j or -k).
measurefirst int
Start measure numbering of the tune at int. This parameter is obsolete and should be replaced with %%setbarnb (outside the tune body)
measurefont font [encoding] size [box]
Set the font for measure numbers to font at size size. If [box] is specified, draw a box around the measure number (default: Times-Italic 14, no box).
measurenb int
Draw a measure number every int bars. If int is 0, the measure number appears at the left end of each staff. If int is -1, no measure numbers are displayed at all (default: -1; command line: -j or -k).
musiconly boolean
If true, no lyrics are output (default: 0; command line: -M, +M)
musicspace length
Set the vertical space before the first staff of a tune to length (default: 0.2cm)
notespacingfactor float
Set the note spacing factor to float. This value is used to compute the natural space notes take up. The base space of the crotchet (quarter note) is always 40pt. When the duration of a note type is twice that of another note type, the space it takes up is multiplied by this factor. The default value increases the note space by a factor of 2 when the corresponding note's value increases by a factor of 4. That is, the space of a semibreve is 80pt and that of a semiquaver is 20pt. Setting this value to 1 sets all note spaces to 40pt (default: 1.414).
oneperpage boolean
If true, output one tune per page; if false, multiple tunes are output per page if there is sufficient room (default: 0; command line: -1, +1).
pageheight length
Set the page height to length   (default: hardcoded)
pagewidth length
Set the page width to length (default: hardcoded)
parskipfac float
Set the factor for spacing between text paragraphs to float (default: 0.4)
partsbox boolean
Draw a box around the part names if true (default: 0)
partsfont font [encoding] size [box]
Set the font for part names to font with size size. If box     is specified, draw a box around the part names.
(default: Times-Roman 15)
partsspace length
Set the vertical space before a new part to length (default: 0.3cm).
postscript text
Define a postscript sequence to be included in the header of the output file. This formatting parameter may be used to override any postscript function or to define new functions for use in deco. It should be processed before any output occurs, that is, in a format file or at the beginning of the first ABC file.
printparts boolean
Print the part indications (`P:' header) (default: 1).
printtempo boolean
Print tempo (metronome) indications (`Q:' header) if true (default: 1; command line: -Q, +Q).
repeatfont font [encoding] size
Set the font for repeat bracket numbers/texts to font at size size.
rightmargin length
Set the right margin to length (default: 1.8cm)
scale float
Set the global page scale factor to float. This does not apply to headers and footers (default: 0.75; command line: -s).
setdefl boolean
When true, output some indications about the note/chord and/or decorations for purposes of customisation. These indications are stored in the PostScript variable defl. Note: This is a potential compatibility problem. The parameter was introduced in version 4.9.4. (default: 0)
setfont-1 font [encoding] size
setfont-2 font [encoding] size
setfont-3 font [encoding] size
setfont-4 font [encoding] size
Set up alternate fonts for strings. In most strings, you can switch to one of the alternate fonts using $1..$4; $0       switches back to the default value for that string.
(default: Times-Roman 0)
shiftunisson boolean
Usually in multi-voice tunes, when two voices are in unison there is often only one note head. If this flag is set, two note heades are output (one is shifted) if one is a minim (half note) and the other a crotchet (quarter note) or shorter, i.e., a "black" note, or if one note is dotted and the other is not. The parameter is really spelled "shiftunisson" (default: 0).
slurheight float
Set the slur height factor to float (default: 1.0).
splittune boolean
If false, a tune is output on a new page if it doesn't fit on the one currently being output. If true, a tune may be split across page breaks (default: 0; command line: -0, +0).
squarebreve boolean
If true, display breve notes in a square shape (default: 0)
staffnonote boolean
If false, staves not containing notes are suppressed. This includes staves that only contain visible rests (default: 1)
staffsep length
Set the vertical inter-staff space to length (default: 46pt; command line: -d)
staffwidth length
Set the right margin such that the staff width is length (default: none - but see paperwidth and rightmargin).
stemheight float
Set the stem height to float (default: 20.0)
straightflags boolean
If true, use straight flags on stems (mostly useful for bagpipe tunes (default: 0)
stretchlast boolean
If true, stretch the last staff of a tune to fill the whole line even though it may be underfull (default: 0)
stretchstaff boolean
If true, stretch all underfull staves to fill the whole line (default: 1)
subtitlefont font [encoding] size
Set the font for subtitles (second and subsequent `T:' headers in a tune) to font with size size (default: Times-Roman 16)
subtitlespace length
Set the vertical space before subtitles (second and subsequent `T:' headers in a tune) to length (default: 0.1cm).
sysstaffsep length
Set the vertical system interstaff space to length (default: 36pt).
tablature arguments
Define a tablature for the current voice. See format.txt for the details.
tempofont font [encoding] size
Set the font for tempo (metronome) indications to font with size size (default: Times-Bold 15)
textfont font [encoding] size
Set the text font to font with size size (default: Times-Roman 16)
textoption int
Set the default text option to int. This option is used for text between %%begintext and %%endtext. int may be a keyword; see begintext for values.
textspace length
Set the vertical space before text blocks to length (default: 0.5cm).
timewarn boolean
If true, a cautionary time signature is added to the end of the line before if a time signature change occurs at the beginning of a line of music (default: 0).
titlecaps boolean
If true, output the tune title in uppercase letters (default: 0)
titlefont font [encoding] size
Set the title font to font with size size (default: Times-Roman 20)
titleformat text
Defines the format of the tune title. This format overrides the standard way the tune title is displayed. text is a sequence of letters, numbers, and commas. A letter stands for an ABC header (reasonable values include A, B, C, D, H, N, O, P, R, S, T, X, and Z, but any letter may occur) and can optionally be followed by a number. This number may be 0 (to center the header), 1 (to display it flush-right), or -1 (to display it flush-left); if no number is given the default is 0. A comma causes the next field(s) to be displayed farther down the page. Unrecognized characters will be ignored. As an example, "%%titleformat T-1 T1 T1, R0 C1 A1" will display the first title header flush-left, the second and third titles (if any) flush-right, then the rhythm centered and a little bit lower, and the composer and area on the right.
 
titleleft boolean
If true, output the tune title flush left (instead of centered) (default: 0)
titlespace length
Set the vertical space before the tune title to length (default: 0.2cm).
titletrim boolean
If true, if the last word of a title starts with a capital letter and is preceded by a comma and a space, this word is moved to the beginning of the title. For example, T:College Hornpipe, The is printed as The College Hornpipe          (default: 1).
topmargin length
Set the top margin to length (default: 1cm)
topspace length
Set the vertical space at the top of a tune to length (default: 0.8cm)
tuplets when what value
Define how to draw tuplets. The when parameter can be 0 (to decide automatically whether to draw a slur or bracket over the tuplet), 1 (to never draw one) or 2 (to always draw one). The what parameter defines what to draw: 0 means a bracket, 1 a slur; 2 extends beams across rests (does not work yet). The value parameter defines how to annotate the tuplet: 0 means to write a simple number (p), 1 writes nothing, and 2 writes a ratio (p:q).
vocalabove boolean
If true, output lyrics above the staff (instead of below it) (default: 0)
vocalfont font [encoding] size
Set the font for lyrics inside a tune to font with size size (default: Times-Bold 13)
vocalspace length
Set the vertical space between a staff and its lyrics to length (default: 23pt)
voicefont font [encoding] size
Set the font for voice names (default: Times-Bold 13).
withxrefs boolean
If true, print the number from the `X:' header in the tune title (default: 0; command line: -x, +x)
wordsfont font [encoding] size
Set the font for lyrics at the end of a tune to font with size size (default: Times-Roman 16)
wordsspace length
Set the vertical space before the end-of-tune lyrics to length (default: 0.5cm)
writehistory boolean
If true, output notes and history (`N:' and `H:' headers) (default: 0; command line: -n, +n)

The following formatting parameters can only occur inside tunes and not in a format file:

%%begintext [mode]
Start printing a free-form text. The text to be printed appears on the subsequent lines of the the input file up to a line containing %%endtext. The text lines may start with %%.
The parameter may be:
obeylines
Line breaks in the input file are kept (default)
align or justify
Lines are justified
ragged or fill
Line breaks are ignored but output is left-justified
center
Lines are centered
skip
The text lines are not printed at all
%%center text
Print one line of centered text
%%EPS filename
Include filename as an EPS file
%%endtext
Finish a block of free text started by %%begintext
%%multicol command
Define multicolumn printing. command may be:
start
Save the current vertical position and left and right margins. These margins may then be changed to print music or text.
new
Reset the vertical position to the place of the previous start and restore the left and right margins. These can then be changed again to display another column.
end
Restore the left and right margins and skip down the page to a `safe place'.
%%newpage [int]
Start a new page, restarting page numbering from int if applicable.
%%repbra int
Repetition brackets are normally displayed as written in a voice. %%repbra 0 suppresses them for the current voice.
%%repeat [n [k]]
Replace a sequence of notes by one or many repeat marks. When placed after a bar line, n indicates the number of measures to be repeated, either 1 or 2. If n is 1, k gives the number of repetitions of the preceding measure. If n is 2, k is not used. When placed after a note or rest, n gives the number of notes and rests to be repeated, and k gives the number of repeats. When omitted, n         and k default to 1.
%%score definition
See below.
%%sep [h1 h2 length]
Print a separator (line) of length length with vertical space h1 above and h2 below (defaults: h1 and h2: 0.5cm; length: 3cm)
%%setbarnb int
Set the measure number to int. When not inside a tune body, this is equivalent to %%measurefirst.
%%staff num
Put the following material on staff num. This will lead, e.g., to beams between notes in different staves. Useful for keyboard music; see, for example, sample4.abc.
%%staffbreak length [f]
Leave a space of length in the current staff. If length is greater than 0.5cm, the left side of the staff (system) is redrawn. In a multi-voice tune, a staff break must be specified in each voice.
If the f is not given, the staff break is removed if it occurs at the start or the end of a line.
%%staves definition
See below.
%%text text
Output a single line of text.
%%vskip length
Leave vertical space of height length. length may be negative, in which case the following material is moved closer to that above.

ADDITIONAL FEATURES

Clefs

Clefs can be given in K: and V: headers. The full syntax is
 

 [clef=]type[line][+8|-8] [middle=pitch]          
 

 

The `clef=' can be omitted when the type is a clef name.
 

type denotes the clef type. It may be:
 

A note pitch (G, C, or F)
The pitch indicates which clef is meant: G is the treble clef, C the alto clef and F the bass clef. It also gives the name of the note that appears on the clef's line.
A clef name
The available clef names are treble (clef gives the pitch for G), alto or tenor (C), and bass (F)
perc or P
In percussion mode, accidentals change the glyphs used for note heads. By default, sharp notes are drawn as `x' and flat notes as circled `x'. This may be changed by redefining the PostScript functions pshhd and pflhd.
none
No clef will be displayed.     

The line gives the number of the line within the staff that the base clef will be written on. The default values are 2 for the treble clef, 3 for the alto clef, and 4 for the tenor and bass clefs.
 

The +8 and -8 options draw an 8 above or below the staff, respectively. `middle=pitch' (or `m=pitch', for short) is an alternative way of defining the line number of the clef: The pitch indicates what note will be displayed on the middle line of the staff.

When no clef is specified, clef changes between bass and treble will be inserted automatically.
 

Multi-voice typesetting

Multiple voices may be defined within the header or the tune using
 

 V:name definition ... 
  
 

where name is a word consisting of letters and digits only (like violin1). In the tune body, the following notes refer to this voice until another V: is encountered. A definition can be one of:
 

clef=...
See above
name=name or nm=name
The name will be displayed at the beginning of the first staff. It can contain \n sequences which will force line breaks. If it contains whitespace it must be double-quoted.
subname=name or snm=name
The name will be displayed at the beginning of all staves except for the first. It can contain \n sequences which will force line breaks. If it contains whitespace it must be double-quoted.
merge
The voice goes on the same staff as the previous voice.
up or down
Forces the direction of the stems for the voice.
dyn=up or dyn=down or dyn=auto
Forces positioning of dynamic marks (above or below the staff) or reverts to automatic positioning (the default)
gstem=up or gstem=down or gstem=auto
Forces the direction of the stems of grace notes (always up or always down) or reverts to automatic positioning (the default)
stem=auto
Reverts to automatic positioning of note stems (up or down) (the default)
lyrics=up or lyrics=down or lyrics=auto
Places lyrics above or below the staff or reverts to automatic positioning (the default)
gchord=up       or gchord=down
Places guitar chords above (the default) or below the
staff.
stafflines=value
Sets the number of lines on the staff in question. (default: 5)
staffscale=value
Sets the scale of the associated staff up to 3. (default: 1)    All other definitions are ignored.

By default, each voice goes on its own staff. The `%%staves definition' pseudo-comment can be used to control staff assignment. The definition consists of voice names (from V:) and pairs of parentheses, braces or brackets.
 

When a voice name is not within a pair of special characters, it goes on a separate staff.
For voice names enclosed in brackets, a bracket is displayed at the beginning of each line that joins the staves of the voices in question.
For voice names enclosed in braces, all the voices go on two staves (keyboard score). There can be at most four voices between a single pair of braces.
For voice names enclosed in parentheses, all the voices appear on a single staff.

The `|' character prevents measure bars from being drawn between two staves.

If `%%staves' occurs in a tune, all the voices not mentioned will not be output at all.

The %%score directive

The %%score directive occurs in the ABC draft 2.0 standard and is similar to the %%staves       specification described earlier. The rules are:

 

Voice names within parentheses form a "voice group" and go on a single staff. A voice name that is not within parentheses forms its own voice group and goes on a staff by itself.
Voice groups within braces form a "voice block" and are preceded by a big brace in the output. This is especially useful for keyboard music.
Voice groups or voice blocks within brackets form a "voice block" and will be preceded by a big bracket in the output.
If a `|' character occurs between two voice groups or voice blocks, the bar lines in all of the associated staves will be continuous.
A single voice surrounded by two voice groups can be preceded by an asterisk to make it into a `floating' voice. This means that, for each note of the voice, a separate decision is made whether it is printed on the preceding or the following voice group's staff.
Voices that appear in the tune body but not in the %%score directive will not be output at all. If there is no %%score    directive, each voice will be output on its own
staff.
A %%score directive inside a tune resets the mechanism so voices can be removed or added.

Voice overlay

You can add notes to a staff without introducing a complete extra voice by using the ampersand (&). A single measure can be split into two voices like
 

 |F2A2Bc&F2c2bc| 
  
 

The (&...&...&) construction allows splitting multiple measures:
 

 |!f!(&GG<G|GG F=E| E2  E(_D/E)|_D D  C      D |C4- |C 
      &DC<C|CC_D C|=B,2_B,B,   |_A,A,(G,/A,/)B,|F,4-|F,)zzD=E| 
  
 

A double ampersand (&&) will allow overlaying more than two lines of music but this feature has not yet been implemented.
 

Lyrics

Aligned lyrics under a staff are written as a w: line directly below the staff line. For example:
 

 edc2 edc2| 
 w:Three blind mice, three blind mice 
  
 

Each word in the w: line (delimited by blanks) is associated with one note, in sequence. The following special symbols modify this behaviour:
 

*
Skips one note.
-
Splits a word into two syllables which are associated with two adjacent notes. A `-' is drawn between them.
|
Advances to the next bar line
~
Is output as a space, but unites two words so they appear under a single note.
_
Draws a thin underscore from the previous note to the next.

To include more than one line of lyrics, use multiple w: lines. To include hyphens without splitting a word over multiple notes, use -.
 

If a word starts with a digit, this is interpreted as a stanza number and outdented a bit to the left.
 

Slurs and ties

The direction of slurs and ties may be controlled using the (, and (', and -, and -', constructions.
 

Microtone pitches

Microtone pitches are indicated by a fraction after an accidental, as in 3/4c. When omitted, the numerator defaultes to 1 and the denominator to 2 (so /c is the same as 1/2c). The numerator and denominator values may not exceed 256. There is built-in support for quarter-tone accidentals (1/2 and 3/2 sharps and flats); for other values, rendering functions must be defined using %%postscript (see features.txt).

EPS inclusion

EPS files may be included inside tunes using the pseudo-comment `%%EPS file'.

SEE ALSO

The original documentation can be found in files features.txt, format.txt, and options.txt, which on a Debian system are in /usr/share/doc/abcm2ps.

AUTHOR

This manual page was written by Anselm Lingnau <lingnau@debian.org> for the Debian system (but may be used by others). Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document as long as its origin is not misrepresented.

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