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Langue: en

Version: 335936 (ubuntu - 24/10/10)

Section: 1 (Commandes utilisateur)

GRASS GIS 6.4.0+42329 Reference Manual

Geographic Resources Analysis Support System, commonly referred to as GRASS, is a <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geographic_information_system">Geographic Information System (GIS) used for geospatial data management and analysis, image processing, graphics/maps production, spatial modeling, and visualization. GRASS is currently used in academic and commercial settings around the world, as well as by many governmental agencies and environmental consulting companies.

This reference manual details the use of modules distributed with Geographic Resources Analysis Support System (GRASS), an open source (GNU GPL'ed), image processing and geographic information system (GIS). Go back to help overview

Full command index:

[ v.* ]

       | d.*         | display commands

       | db.*        | database commands

       | g.*         | general commands

       | i.*         | imagery commands

       | m.*         | miscellaneous commands

       | ps.*        | postscript commands

       | r.*         | raster commands

       | r3.*        | raster3D commands

       | v.*         | vector commands

       | gis.m       | GUI frontend to GIS menus and display

       | nviz        | visualization suite

       | wxGUI       | wxPython-based GUI frontend

       | xganim      | raster map slideshow

d.* commands:


       | d.ask         | Prompts the user to select a GRASS data base file from among files displayed in a menu on the graphics monitor.

       | d.barscale    | Displays a barscale on the graphics monitor.

       | d.colorlist   | Output a list of all available display colors with a configurable separator (default is comma).

       | d.colors      | Allows the user to interactively change the color table of a raster map layer displayed on the graphics monitor.

       | d.colortable  | Displays the color table associated with a raster map layer.

       | d.correlate   | Prints a graph of the correlation between data layers (in pairs).

       | d.erase       | Erase the contents of the active display frame with user defined color

       | d.extend      | Sets window region so that all currently displayed raster and vector maps can be shown in a monitor.

       | d.extract     | Selects and extracts vectors with mouse into new vector map.

       | d.font        | Selects the font in which text will be displayed on the user's graphics monitor.

       | d.frame       | Manages display frames on the user's graphics monitor.

       | d.geodesic    | Displays a geodesic line, tracing the shortest distance between two geographic points along a great circle, in a longitude/latitude data set.

       | d.graph       | Program for generating and displaying simple graphics on the display monitor.

       | d.grid        | Overlays a user-specified grid in the active display frame on the graphics monitor.

       | d.his         | Displays the result obtained by combining hue, intensity, and saturation (his) values from user-specified input raster map layers.

       | d.histogram   | Displays a histogram in the form of a pie or bar chart for a user-specified raster map.

       | d.info        | Display information about the active display monitor

       | d.labels      | Displays text labels (created with v.label) to the active frame on the graphics monitor.

       | d.legend      | Displays a legend for a raster map in the active frame of the graphics monitor.

       | d.linegraph   | Generates and displays simple line graphs in the active graphics monitor display frame.

       | d.m   | Display manager for GRASS

       | d.mapgraph    | Generates and displays simple graphics on map layers drawn in the active graphics monitor display frame.

       | d.measure     | Measures the lengths and areas of features drawn by the user in the active display frame on the graphics monitor.

       | d.menu        | Creates and displays a menu within the active frame on the graphics monitor.

       | d.mon         | To establish and control use of a graphics display monitor.

       | d.monsize     | Selects/starts specified monitor at specified size

       | d.mvmon       | Moves displayed maps to another monitor

       | d.nviz        | Creates fly-through script to run in NVIZ.

       | d.out.file    | Saves the contents of the active display monitor to a graphics file.

       | d.out.gpsdrive        | Export display monitor to a GpsDrive compatible backdrop image

       | d.out.png     | Saves active display monitor to PNG file in home directory

       | d.path        | Finds shortest path for selected starting and ending node.

       | d.polar       | Draws polar diagram of angle map such as aspect or flow directions

       | d.profile     | Interactive profile plotting utility with optional output.

       | d.rast.arrow  | Draws arrows representing cell aspect direction for a raster map containing aspect data.

       | d.rast.edit   | Interactively edit cell values in a raster map.

       | d.rast        | Displays and overlays raster map layers in the active display frame on the graphics monitor.

       | d.rast.leg    | Displays a raster map and its legend on a graphics window

       | d.rast.num    | Overlays cell category values on a raster map layer displayed to the graphics monitor.

       | d.redraw      | Redraws the current display frame in the GRASS monitor

       | d.resize      | Resizes active display monitor

       | d.rgb         | Displays three user-specified raster map layers as red, green, and blue overlays in the active graphics frame.

       | d.rhumbline   | Displays the rhumbline joining two user-specified points, in the active frame on the user's graphics monitor.

       | d.save        | Creates a list of commands for recreating screen graphics.

       | d.shadedmap   | Drapes a color raster over a shaded relief map using d.his

       | d.slide.show  | Slide show of GRASS raster/vector maps.

       | d.split.frame         | Split the display into subframes.

       | d.split       | Divides active display into two frames & displays maps/executes commands in each frame.

       | d.text        | Draws text in the active display frame on the graphics monitor using the current font.

       | d.thematic.area       | Displays a thematic vector area map in the active frame on the graphics monitor.

       | d.title       | Create a TITLE for a raster map in a form suitable for display with d.text.

       | d.vect.chart  | Displays charts of vector data in the active frame on the graphics monitor.

       | d.vect        | Displays vector data in the active frame on the graphics monitor.

       | d.vect.thematic       | Displays thematic vector map

       | d.what.rast   | Allows the user to interactively query the category contents of multiple raster map layers at user specified locations within the current geographic region.

       | d.what.vect   | Allows the user to interactively query a vector map layer at user-selected locations within the current geographic region.

       | d.where       | Identifies the geographic coordinates associated with point locations in the active frame on the graphics monitor.

       | d.zoom        | Allows the user to change the current geographic region settings interactively, with a mouse.

db.* commands:


       | db.columns    | List all columns for a given table.

       | db.connect    | Prints/sets general DB connection for current mapset and exits.

       | db.copy       | Copy a table.


       | db.describe   | Describes a table in detail.

       | db.drivers    | List all database drivers.

       | db.dropcol    | Drops a column from selected attribute table

       | db.droptable  | Drops an attribute table.

       | db.execute    | Executes any SQL statement.

       | db.in.ogr     | Imports attribute tables in various formats.

       | db.login      | Sets user/password for driver/database.

       | db.out.ogr    | Exports attribute tables into various formats.

       | db.select     | Selects data from table.

       | db.tables     | Lists all tables for a given database.

       | db.test       | Test database driver, database must exist and set by db.connect.

g.* commands:


       | g.access      | Controls access to the current mapset for other users on the system.

       | g.ask         | Prompts the user for the names of GRASS data base files.

       | g.copy        | Copies available data files in the user's current mapset search path and location to the appropriate element directories under the user's current mapset.

       | g.dirseps     | Internal GRASS utility for converting directory separator characters.


       | g.filename    | Prints GRASS data base file names.

       | g.findetc     | Searches for GRASS support files.

       | g.findfile    | Searches for GRASS data base files and sets variables for the shell.

       | g.gisenv      | Outputs and modifies the user's current GRASS variable settings.

       | g.gui         | Launches a GRASS graphical user interface (GUI) session.

       | g.list        | Lists available GRASS data base files of the user-specified data type to standard output.

       | g.manual      | Display the HTML man pages of GRASS

       | g.mapset      | Change current mapset.

       | g.mapsets     | Modifies the user's current mapset search path, affecting the user's access to data existing under the other GRASS mapsets in the current location.

       | g.message     | Prints a message, warning, progress info, or fatal error in the GRASS way.


       | g.mkfontcap   | Generates the font configuration file by scanning various directories for fonts

       | g.mlist       | Lists available GRASS data base files of the user-specified data type to standard output.

       | g.mremove     | Removes data base element files from the user's current mapset.

       | g.parser      | Provides automated parser, GUI, and help support for GRASS scipts.

       | g.pnmcomp     | Overlays multiple PPM image files

       | g.proj        | Converts co-ordinate system descriptions (i.e. projection information) between various formats (including GRASS format).


       | g.region      | Manages the boundary definitions for the geographic region.

       | g.remove      | Removes data base element files from the user's current mapset.

       | g.rename      | Renames data base element files in the user's current mapset.

       | g.setproj     | Interactively reset the location's projection settings.

       | g.tempfile    | Creates a temporary file and prints the file name.

       | g.transform   | Computes a coordinate transformation based on the control points.

       | g.version     | Displays version and copyright information.

i.* commands:


       | i.atcorr      | Performs atmospheric correction using the 6S algorithm.


       | i.cca         | Canonical components analysis (cca) program for image processing.

       | i.class       | Generates spectral signatures for an image by allowing the user to outline regions of interest.


       | i.cluster     | Generates spectral signatures for land cover types in an image using a clustering algorithm.


       | i.fft         | Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) for image processing.

       | i.fusion.brovey       | Brovey transform to merge multispectral and high-res panchromatic channels

       | i.gensig      | Generates statistics for i.maxlik from raster map.

       | i.gensigset   | Generates statistics for i.smap from raster map.

       | i.group       | Creates, edits, and lists groups and subgroups of imagery files.

       | i.his.rgb     | Transforms raster maps from HIS (Hue-Intensity-Saturation) color space to RGB (Red-Green-Blue) color space.

       | i.ifft        | Inverse Fast Fourier Transform (IFFT) for image processing.

       | i.image.mosaic        | Mosaics up to 4 images and extends colormap; creates map *.mosaic

       | i.in.spotvgt  | Import of SPOT VGT NDVI file into a raster map

       | i.landsat.rgb         | Performs auto-balancing of colors for LANDSAT images.

       | i.maxlik      | Classifies the cell spectral reflectances in imagery data.


       | i.oif         | Calculates Optimum-Index-Factor table for LANDSAT TM bands 1-5, & 7

       | i.ortho.photo         | Menu driver for the photo imagery programs.

       | i.pca         | Principal components analysis (pca) program for image processing.

       | i.points      | Mark ground control points on image to be rectified.

       | i.rectify     | Rectifies an image by computing a coordinate transformation for each pixel in the image based on the control points.

       | i.rgb.his     | Transforms raster maps from RGB (Red-Green-Blue) color space to HIS (Hue-Intensity-Saturation) color space.

       | i.smap        | Performs contextual image classification using sequential maximum a posteriori (SMAP) estimation.

       | i.spectral    | Displays spectral response at user specified locations in group or images.

       | i.target      | Targets an imagery group to a GRASS location and mapset.

       | i.tasscap     | Tasseled Cap (Kauth Thomas) transformation for LANDSAT-TM data

       | i.vpoints     | Set registration points for an imagery group from a vector map or keyboard entry.

       | i.zc  | Zero-crossing "edge detection" raster function for image processing.

m.* commands:


       | m.cogo        | A simple utility for converting bearing and distance measurements to coordinates and vice versa.


       | m.proj        | Convert coordinates from one projection to another (cs2cs frontend).

ps.* commands:


       | ps.map        | Hardcopy PostScript map output utility.

r.* commands:


       | r.average     | Finds the average of values in a cover map within areas assigned the same category value in a user-specified base map.

       | r.basins.fill         | Generates a raster map layer showing watershed subbasins.

       | r.bilinear    | Bilinear interpolation utility for raster map layers.

       | r.bitpattern  | Compares bit patterns with a raster map.

       | r.blend       | Blends color components of two raster maps by a given ratio.

       | r.buffer      | Creates a raster map layer showing buffer zones surrounding cells that contain non-NULL category values.

       | r.carve       | Takes vector stream data, transforms it to raster and subtracts depth from the output DEM.

       | r.category    | Manages category values and labels associated with user-specified raster map layers.

       | r.circle      | Creates a raster map containing concentric rings around a given point.

       | r.clump       | Recategorizes data in a raster map by grouping cells that form physically discrete areas into unique categories.

       | r.coin        | Tabulates the mutual occurrence (coincidence) of categories for two raster map layers.

       | r.colors      | Creates/modifies the color table associated with a raster map layer.

       | r.colors.stddev       | Set color rules based on stddev from a map's mean value.

       | r.composite   | Combines red, green and blue raster maps into a single composite raster map.

       | r.compress    | Compresses and decompresses raster maps.

       | r.contour     | Produces a vector map of specified contours from a raster map.

       | r.cost        | Creates a raster map showing the cumulative cost of moving between different geographic locations on an input raster map whose cell category values represent cost.

       | r.covar       | Outputs a covariance/correlation matrix for user-specified raster map layer(s).

       | r.cross       | Creates a cross product of the category values from multiple raster map layers.

       | r.describe    | Prints terse list of category values found in a raster map layer.

       | r.digit       | Interactive tool used to draw and save vector features on a graphics monitor using a pointing device (mouse) and save to a raster map.

       | r.distance    | Locates the closest points between objects in two raster maps.

       | r.drain       | Traces a flow through an elevation model on a raster map.

       | r.external    | Link GDAL supported raster file to a binary raster map layer.

       | r.fill.dir    | Filters and generates a depressionless elevation map and a flow direction map from a given elevation layer.

       | r.fillnulls   | Fills no-data areas in raster maps using v.surf.rst splines interpolation

       | r.flow        | Construction of slope curves (flowlines), flowpath lengths, and flowline densities (upslope areas) from a raster digital elevation model (DEM)

       | r.grow.distance       | Generates a raster map layer of distance to features in input layer.

       | r.grow        | Generates a raster map layer with contiguous areas grown by one cell.

       | r.gwflow      | Numerical calculation program for transient, confined and unconfined groundwater flow in two dimensions.

       | r.his         | Generates red, green and blue raster map layers combining hue, intensity and saturation (HIS) values from user-specified input raster map layers.

       | r.horizon     | Horizon angle computation from a digital elevation model.


       | r.in.arc      | Converts an ESRI ARC/INFO ascii raster file (GRID) into a (binary) raster map layer.

       | r.in.ascii    | Converts ASCII raster file to binary raster map layer.

       | r.in.aster    | Georeference, rectify and import Terra-ASTER imagery and relative DEM's using gdalwarp.

       | r.in.bin      | Import a binary raster file into a GRASS raster map layer.

       | r.in.gdal     | Import GDAL supported raster file into a binary raster map layer.

       | r.in.gridatb  | Imports GRIDATB.FOR map file (TOPMODEL) into GRASS raster map

       | r.in.mat      | Imports a binary MAT-File(v4) to a GRASS raster.

       | r.in.poly     | Creates raster maps from ASCII polygon/line/point data files.

       | r.in.srtm     | Import SRTM HGT files into GRASS

       | r.in.wms      | Downloads and imports data from WMS servers.

       | r.in.xyz      | Create a raster map from an assemblage of many coordinates using univariate statistics.

       | r.info        | Output basic information about a raster map layer.

       | r.kappa       | Calculate error matrix and kappa parameter for accuracy assessment of classification result.

       | r.lake        | Fills lake from seed at given level.

       | r.le.patch    | Calculates attribute, patch size, core (interior) size, shape, fractal dimension, and perimeter measures for sets of patches in a landscape.

       | r.le.pixel    | Contains a set of measures for attributes, diversity, texture, juxtaposition, and edge.

       | r.le.setup    | Interactive tool used to setup the sampling and analysis framework that will be used by the other r.le programs.

       | r.le.trace    | Displays the boundary of each r.le patch and shows how the boundary is traced, displays the attribute, size, perimeter and shape indices for each patch and saves the data in an output file.

       | r.li.cwed     | Calculates contrast weighted edge density index on a raster map

       | r.li.daemon   | Support module for r.li landscape index calculations.

       | r.li.dominance        | Calculates dominance's diversity index on a raster map

       | r.li.edgedensity      | Calculates edge density index on a raster map, using a 4 neighbour algorithm

       | r.li  | Landscape structure analysis package overview.

       | r.li.mpa      | Calculates mean pixel attribute index on a raster map

       | r.li.mps      | Calculates mean patch size index on a raster map, using a 4 neighbour algorithm

       | r.li.padcv    | Calculates coefficient of variation of patch area on a raster map

       | r.li.padrange         | Calculates range of patch area size on a raster map

       | r.li.padsd    | Calculates standard deviation of patch area a raster map

       | r.li.patchdensity     | Calculates patch density index on a raster map, using a 4 neighbour algorithm

       | r.li.patchnum         | Calculates patch number index on a raster map, using a 4 neighbour algorithm.

       | r.li.richness         | Calculates dominance's diversity index on a raster map

       | r.li.setup    | Configuration editor for r.li.'index'

       | r.li.shannon  | Calculates Shannon's diversity index on a raster map

       | r.li.shape    | Calculates shape index on a raster map

       | r.li.simpson  | Calculates Simpson's diversity index on a raster map

       | r.los         | Line-of-sight raster analysis program.

       | r.mapcalc     | Raster map calculator.

       | r.mapcalculator       | Calculate new raster map from a r.mapcalc expression.

       | r.mask        | Create a MASK for limiting raster operation

       | r.median      | Finds the median of values in a cover map within areas assigned the same category value in a user-specified base map.

       | r.mfilter.fp  | Raster map matrix filter.

       | r.mfilter     | Raster map matrix filter.

       | r.mode        | Finds the mode of values in a cover map within areas assigned the same category value in a user-specified base map.

       | r.neighbors   | Makes each cell category value a function of the category values assigned to the cells around it, and stores new cell values in an output raster map layer.

       | r.null        | Manages NULL-values of given raster map.

       | r.out.arc     | Converts a raster map layer into an ESRI ARCGRID file.

       | r.out.ascii   | Converts a raster map layer into an ASCII text file.

       | r.out.bin     | Exports a GRASS raster to a binary array.

       | r.out.gdal    | Exports GRASS raster maps into GDAL supported formats.

       | r.out.gdal.sh         | Exports GRASS raster into GDAL supported formats.

       | r.out.gridatb         | Exports GRASS raster map to GRIDATB.FOR map file (TOPMODEL)

       | r.out.mat     | Exports a GRASS raster to a binary MAT-File.

       | r.out.mpeg    | Raster File Series to MPEG Conversion Program.

       | r.out.png     | Export GRASS raster as non-georeferenced PNG image format.

       | r.out.pov     | Converts a raster map layer into a height-field file for POVRAY.

       | r.out.ppm     | Converts a GRASS raster map to a PPM image file at the pixel resolution of the currently defined region.

       | r.out.ppm3    | Converts 3 GRASS raster layers (R,G,B) to a PPM image file at the pixel resolution of the CURRENTLY DEFINED REGION.

       | r.out.tiff    | Exports a GRASS raster map to a 8/24bit TIFF image file at the pixel resolution of the currently defined region.

       | r.out.vrml    | Export a raster map to the Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML)

       | r.out.vtk     | Converts raster maps into the VTK-Ascii format

       | r.out.xyz     | Export a raster map to a text file as x,y,z values based on cell centers.

       | r.param.scale         | Extracts terrain parameters from a DEM.


       | r.patch       | Creates a composite raster map layer by using known category values from one (or more) map layer(s) to fill in areas of "no data" in another map layer.

       | r.plane       | Creates raster plane map given dip (inclination), aspect (azimuth) and one point.

       | r.profile     | Outputs the raster map layer values lying on user-defined line(s).

       | r.proj        | Re-projects a raster map from one location to the current location.

       | r.quant       | Produces the quantization file for a floating-point map.

       | r.quantile    | Compute quantiles using two passes.

       | r.random.cells        | Generates random cell values with spatial dependence.

       | r.random      | Creates a raster map layer and vector point map containing randomly located points.

       | r.random.surface      | Generates random surface(s) with spatial dependence.

       | r.reclass.area        | Reclasses a raster map greater or less than user specified area size (in hectares).

       | r.reclass     | Creates a new map layer whose category values are based upon a reclassification of the categories in an existing raster map layer.

       | r.recode      | Recodes categorical raster maps.

       | r.region      | Sets the boundary definitions for a raster map.

       | r.regression.line     | Calculates linear regression from two raster maps: y = a + b*x

       | r.report      | Reports statistics for raster map layers.

       | r.resamp.interp       | Resamples raster map layers to a finer grid using interpolation.

       | r.resamp.rst  | Reinterpolates and optionally computes topographic analysis from input raster map to a new raster map (possibly with different resolution) using regularized spline with tension and smoothing.

       | r.resamp.stats        | Resamples raster map layers to a coarser grid using aggregation.

       | r.resample    | GRASS raster map layer data resampling capability.

       | r.rescale.eq  | Rescales histogram equalized the range of category values in a raster map layer.

       | r.rescale     | Rescales the range of category values in a raster map layer.

       | r.ros         | Generates three, or four raster map layers showing 1) the base (perpendicular) rate of spread (ROS), 2) the maximum (forward) ROS, 3) the direction of the maximum ROS, and optionally 4) the maximum potential spotting distance.

       | r.series      | Makes each output cell value a function of the values assigned to the corresponding cells in the input raster map layers.

       | r.shaded.relief       | Creates shaded relief map from an elevation map (DEM).

       | r.sim.sediment        | Sediment transport and erosion/deposition simulation using path sampling method (SIMWE)

       | r.sim.water   | Overland flow hydrologic simulation using path sampling method (SIMWE)

       | r.slope.aspect        | Generates raster maps of slope, aspect, curvatures and partial derivatives from a elevation raster map.


       | r.spread      | Simulates elliptically anisotropic spread on a graphics window and generates a raster map of the cumulative time of spread, given raster maps containing the rates of spread (ROS), the ROS directions and the spread origins.


       | r.spreadpath  | Recursively traces the least cost path backwards to cells from which the cumulative cost was determined.

       | r.statistics  | Calculates category or object oriented statistics.

       | r.stats       | Generates area statistics for raster map layers.

       | r.sum         | Sums up the raster cell values.

       | r.sun         | Solar irradiance and irradiation model.


       | r.sunmask     | Calculates cast shadow areas from sun position and DEM. Either A: exact sun position is specified, or B: date/time to calculate the sun position by r.sunmask itself.

       | r.support     | Allows creation and/or modification of raster map layer support files.

       | r.support.stats       | Update raster map statistics

       | r.surf.area   | Surface area estimation for rasters.

       | r.surf.contour        | Surface generation program from rasterized contours.

       | r.surf.fractal        | Creates a fractal surface of a given fractal dimension.

       | r.surf.gauss  | GRASS module to produce a raster map layer of gaussian deviates whose mean and standard deviation can be expressed by the user. It uses a gaussian random number generator.

       | r.surf.idw    | Surface interpolation utility for raster map.

       | r.surf.idw2   | Surface generation program.

       | r.surf.random         | Produces a raster map layer of uniform random deviates whose range can be expressed by the user.

       | r.terraflow   | Flow computation for massive grids (Float version).

       | r.texture     | Generate images with textural features from a raster map.

       | r.thin        | Thins non-zero cells that denote linear features in a raster map layer.

       | r.tileset     | Produces tilings of the source projection for use in the destination region and projection.

       | r.timestamp   | Print/add/remove a timestamp for a raster map.

       | r.to.rast3    | Converts 2D raster map slices to one 3D raster volume map.

       | r.to.rast3elev        | Creates a 3D volume map based on 2D elevation and value raster maps.

       | r.to.vect     | Converts a raster map into a vector map layer.

       | r.topidx      | Creates topographic index [ln(a/tan(beta))] map from elevation map.

       | r.topmodel    | Simulates TOPMODEL which is a physically based hydrologic model.

       | r.transect    | Outputs raster map layer values lying along user defined transect line(s).

       | r.univar      | Calculates univariate statistics from the non-null cells of a raster map.

       | r.univar.sh   | calculates univariate statistics from a GRASS raster map

       | r.volume      | Calculates the volume of data "clumps", and (optionally) produces a GRASS vector points map containing the calculated centroids of these clumps.

       | r.walk        | Outputs a raster map layer showing the anisotropic cumulative cost of moving between different geographic locations on an input elevation raster map layer whose cell category values represent elevation combined with an input raster map layer whose cell values represent friction cost.

       | r.water.outlet        | Watershed basin creation program.

       | r.watershed   | Watershed basin analysis program.

       | r.what.color  | Queries colors for a raster map layer.

       | r.what        | Queries raster map layers on their category values and category labels.

r3.* commands:


       | r3.cross.rast         | Creates cross section 2D raster map from 3d raster map based on 2D elevation map

       | r3.gwflow     | Numerical calculation program for transient, confined groundwater flow in three dimensions

       | r3.in.ascii   | Convert a 3D ASCII raster text file into a (binary) 3D raster map layer

       | r3.in.v5d     | import of 3-dimensional Vis5D files (i.e. the v5d file with 1 variable and 1 time step)

       | r3.info       | Outputs basic information about a user-specified 3D raster map layer.

       | r3.mapcalc    | 3D raster map calculator.

       | r3.mapcalculator      | Calculates new grid3D volume from r3.mapcalc expression.

       | r3.mask       | Establishes the current working 3D raster mask.

       | r3.mkdspf     | Creates a display file from an existing grid3 file according to specified threshold levels.

       | r3.null       | Explicitly create the 3D NULL-value bitmap file.

       | r3.out.ascii  | Converts a 3D raster map layer into an ASCII text file

       | r3.out.v5d    | Export of GRASS 3D raster map to 3-dimensional Vis5D file.

       | r3.out.vtk    | Converts 3D raster maps (G3D) into the VTK-Ascii format

       | r3.stats      | Generates volume statistics for raster3d maps.

       | r3.timestamp  | Print/add/remove a timestamp for a 3D raster map

       | r3.to.rast    | Converts 3D raster maps to 2D raster maps

       | r3.univar     | Calculates univariate statistics from the non-null 3d cells of a raster3d map.

v.* commands:


       | v.buffer      | Creates a buffer around features of given type (areas must contain centroid).

       | v.build.all   | Rebuilds topology on all vector maps in the current mapset.

       | v.build       | Creates topology for GRASS vector map.

       | v.build.polylines     | Builds polylines from lines or boundaries.

       | v.category    | Attach, delete or report vector categories to map geometry.

       | v.centroids   | Adds missing centroids to closed boundaries.

       | v.class       | Classifies attribute data, e.g. for thematic mapping

       | v.clean       | Toolset for cleaning topology of vector map.

       | v.colors      | Set color rules for features in a vector using a numeric attribute column.

       | v.convert.all         | Convert all old GRASS < Ver5.7 vector maps in current mapset to current format

       | v.convert     | Imports older versions of GRASS vector maps.

       | v.db.addcol   | Adds one or more columns to the attribute table connected to a given vector map.

       | v.db.addtable         | Creates and connects a new attribute table to a given layer of an existing vector map.

       | v.db.connect  | Prints/sets DB connection for a vector map to attribute table.

       | v.db.dropcol  | Drops a column from the attribute table connected to a given vector map.

       | v.db.droptable        | Removes existing attribute table of a vector map.

       | v.db.join     | Allows to join a table to a vector map table.

       | v.db.reconnect.all    | Reconnects vectors to a new database.

       | v.db.renamecol        | Renames a column in the attribute table connected to a given vector map.

       | v.db.select   | Prints vector map attributes.

       | v.db.univar   | Calculates univariate statistics on selected table column for a GRASS vector map.

       | v.db.update   | Allows to update a column in the attribute table connected to a vector map.

       | v.delaunay    | Creates a Delaunay triangulation from an input vector map containing points or centroids.

       | v.digit       | Interactive editing and digitization of vector maps.

       | v.dissolve    | Dissolves boundaries between adjacent areas sharing a common category number or attribute.

       | v.distance    | Finds the nearest element in vector map 'to' for elements in vector map 'from'.

       | v.drape       | Converts vector map to 3D by sampling of elevation raster map.

       | v.edit        | Edits a vector map, allows adding, deleting and modifying selected vector features.

       | v.external    | Creates a new vector as a read-only link to OGR layer.


       | v.extract     | Selects vector objects from an existing vector map and creates a new map containing only the selected objects.

       | v.extrude     | Extrudes flat vector object to 3D with defined height.

       | v.generalize  | Vector based generalization.

       | v.hull        | Produces a convex hull for a given vector map.

       | v.in.ascii    | Creates a vector map from ASCII points file or ASCII vector file.

       | v.in.db       | Creates new vector (points) map from database table containing coordinates.

       | v.in.dxf      | Converts files in DXF format to GRASS vector map format.

       | v.in.e00      | Import E00 file into a vector map.

       | v.in.garmin   | Download waypoints, routes, and tracks from a Garmin GPS receiver into a vector map.

       | v.in.geonames         | Imports geonames.org country files into a GRASS vector points map.

       | v.in.gns      | Imports US-NGA GEOnet Names Server (GNS) country files into a GRASS vector points map.

       | v.in.gpsbabel         | Import waypoints, routes, and tracks from a GPS receiver or GPS download file into a vector map.

       | v.in.mapgen   | Import Mapgen or Matlab vector maps into GRASS.

       | v.in.ogr      | Convert OGR vector layers to GRASS vector map.

       | v.in.region   | Create a new vector from the current region.

       | v.in.sites.all        | Converts all old GRASS < Ver5.7 sites maps in current mapset to vector maps.

       | v.in.sites    | Converts a GRASS site_lists file into a vector map.

       | v.in.wfs      | Import GetFeature from WFS

       | v.info        | Outputs basic information about a user-specified vector map.

       | v.kcv         | Randomly partition points into test/train sets.

       | v.kernel      | Generates a raster density map from vector points data using a moving 2D isotropic Gaussian kernel or optionally generates a vector density map on vector network with a 1D kernel.

       | v.label       | Creates paint labels for a vector map from attached attributes.

       | v.label.sa    | Create optimally placed labels for vector map(s)

       | v.lidar.correction    | Correction of the v.lidar.growing output. It is the last of the three algorithms for LIDAR filtering.

       | v.lidar.edgedetection         | Detects the object's edges from a LIDAR data set.

       | v.lidar.growing       | Building contour determination and Region Growing algorithm for determining the building inside

       | v.lrs.create  | Create Linear Reference System

       | v.lrs.label   | Create stationing from input lines, and linear reference system

       | v.lrs.segment         | Creates points/segments from input lines, linear reference system and positions read from stdin or a file.

       | v.lrs.where   | Finds line id and real km+offset for given points in vector map using linear reference system.

       | v.mkgrid      | Creates a GRASS vector map of a user-defined grid.

       | v.neighbors   | Makes each cell value a function of the attribute values assigned to the vector points or centroids around it, and stores new cell values in an output raster map layer.

       | v.net.alloc   | Allocate subnets for nearest centres (direction from centre).


       | v.net         | Performs network maintenance.

       | v.net.iso     | Splits net by cost isolines.


       | v.net.path    | Finds shortest path on vector network.

       | v.net.salesman        | Creates a cycle connecting given nodes (Traveling salesman problem).


       | v.net.steiner         | Create Steiner tree for the network and given terminals


       | v.net.visibility      | Visibility graph construction.

       | v.normal      | Tests for normality for points.

       | v.out.ascii   | Converts a GRASS binary vector map to a GRASS ASCII vector map.

       | v.out.dxf     | Exports GRASS vector map layers to DXF file format.

       | v.out.gpsbabel        | Exports a vector map to a GPS receiver or file format supported by GpsBabel.

       | v.out.ogr     | Converts to one of the supported OGR vector formats.

       | v.out.pov     | Converts to POV-Ray format, GRASS x,y,z -> POV-Ray x,z,y

       | v.out.svg     | Exports a GRASS vector map to SVG.

       | v.out.vtk     | Converts a GRASS binary vector map to VTK ASCII output.

       | v.outlier     | Removes outliers from vector point data.

       | v.overlay     | Overlays two vector maps.

       | v.parallel    | Creates parallel line to input vector lines.

       | v.patch       | Create a new vector map layer by combining other vector map layers.

       | v.perturb     | Random location perturbations of GRASS vector points

       | v.proj        | Allows projection conversion of vector maps.

       | v.qcount      | Indices for quadrat counts of sites lists.

       | v.random      | Randomly generate a 2D/3D vector points map.

       | v.rast.stats  | Calculates univariate statistics from a raster map based on vector polygons and uploads statistics to new attribute columns.

       | v.reclass     | Changes vector category values for an existing vector map according to results of SQL queries or a value in attribute table column.

       | v.report      | Reports geometry statistics for vectors.

       | v.sample      | Samples a raster map at vector point locations.

       | v.segment     | Creates points/segments from input vector lines and positions.

       | v.select      | Selects features from vector map (A) by features from other vector map (B).

       | v.split       | Split lines to shorter segments.

       | v.support     | Updates vector map metadata.

       | v.surf.bspline        | Bicubic or bilinear spline interpolation with Tykhonov regularization.

       | v.surf.idw    | Surface interpolation from vector point data by Inverse Distance Squared Weighting.

       | v.surf.rst    | Spatial approximation and topographic analysis from given point or isoline data in vector format to floating point raster format using regularized spline with tension.

       | v.to.3d       | Performs transformation of 2D vector features to 3D.

       | v.to.db       | Populates database values from vector features.

       | v.to.points   | Create points along input lines in new vector with 2 layers.

       | v.to.rast     | Converts a binary GRASS vector map into a GRASS raster map .

       | v.to.rast3    | Converts a binary GRASS vector map (only points) layer into a 3D GRASS raster map layer.

       | v.transform   | Performs an affine transformation (shift, scale and rotate, or GPCs) on vector map.

       | v.type        | Change the type of geometry elements.

       | v.univar      | Calculates univariate statistics for attribute. Variance and standard deviation is calculated only for points if specified.

       | v.univar.sh   | Calculates univariate statistics on selected table column for a GRASS vector map.

       | v.vol.rst     | Interpolates point data to a G3D grid volume using regularized spline with tension (RST) algorithm.

       | v.voronoi     | Creates a Voronoi diagram from an input vector map containing points or centroids.

       | v.what        | Queries a vector map layer at given locations.

       | v.what.rast   | Uploads raster values at positions of vector points to the table.

       | v.what.vect   | Uploads vector values at positions of vector points to the table.

Full Index
© 2003-2010 GRASS Development Team

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Le Loup et l'Agneau (Fables I.10) -+-