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Langue: en

Version: 338206 (ubuntu - 24/10/10)

Section: 1 (Commandes utilisateur)


grd2xyz - Converting grid file(s) to ASCII or binary data


grd2xyz grdfiles [ -E[nodata] ] [ -H[i][nrec] ] [ -Nnodata ] [ -Rwest/east/south/north[r] ] [ -S[r] ] [ -V ] [ -W[weight] ] [ -Z[flags] ] [ -bo[s|S|d|D[ncol]|c[var1/...]] ] [ -fcolinfo ]


grd2xyz reads one or more binary 2-D grid files and writes out xyz-triplets in ASCII [or binary] format to standard output. Modify the precision of the ASCII output format by editing the D_FORMAT parameter in your .gmtdefaults4 file or use --D_FORMAT=value on the command line, or choose binary output using single or double precision storage. As an option you may output z-values without the (x,y) in a number of formats, see -E or -Z below.
Names of 2-D binary grid files to be converted. (See GRID FILE FORMATS below.)


Output an ESRI ArcInfo ASCII interchange grid format file. Append nodata which will be used wherever the grid value equals NaN [-9999]. Note that all data values are written as integers.
Output 1 header record based on information in the first grid file header. Ignored if binary output is selected. [Default is no header].
Output this z-value where the latter equals NaN [Default writes NaN].
xmin, xmax, ymin, and ymax specify the Region of interest. For geographic regions, these limits correspond to west, east, south, and north and you may specify them in decimal degrees or in [+-]dd:mm[][W|E|S|N] format. Append r if lower left and upper right map coordinates are given instead of w/e/s/n. The two shorthands -Rg and -Rd stand for global domain (0/360 and -180/+180 in longitude respectively, with -90/+90 in latitude). Alternatively, specify the name of an existing grid file and the -R settings (and grid spacing, if applicable) are copied from the grid. For calendar time coordinates you may either give (a) relative time (relative to the selected TIME_EPOCH and in the selected TIME_UNIT; append t to -JX|x), or (b) absolute time of the form [date]T[clock] (append T to -JX|x). At least one of date and clock must be present; the T is always required. The date string must be of the form [-]yyyy[-mm[-dd]] (Gregorian calendar) or yyyy[-Www[-d]] (ISO week calendar), while the clock string must be of the form hh:mm:ss[.xxx]. The use of delimiters and their type and positions must be exactly as indicated (however, input, output and plot formats are customizable; see gmtdefaults). Using the -R option will select a subsection of the grid. If this subsection exceeds the boundaries of the grid, only the common region will be output.
Suppress output for nodes whose z-value equals NaN [Default outputs all nodes]. Append r to reverse the suppression, i.e., only output the nodes whose z-value equals NaN.
Selects verbose mode, which will send progress reports to stderr [Default runs "silently"].
Write out x,y,z,w, where w is the supplied weight (or 1 if not supplied) [Default writes x,y,z only].
Write a 1-column ASCII [or binary] table. Output will be organized according to the specified ordering convention contained in flags. If data should be written by rows, make flags start with T(op) if first row is y = ymax or B(ottom) if first row is y = ymin. Then, append L or R to indicate that first element should start at left or right end of row. Likewise for column formats: start with L or R to position first column, and then append T or B to position first element in a row. For gridline registered grids: If grid is periodic in x but the outcoming data should not contain the (redundant) column at x = xmax, append x. For grid periodic in y, skip writing the redundant row at y = ymax by appending y. If the byte-order needs to be swapped, append w. Select one of several data types (all binary except a):
a ASCII representation
c signed 1-byte character
u unsigned 1-byte character
h short 2-byte integer
i 4-byte integer
l long (4- or 8-byte) integer [architecture-dependent!]
f 4-byte floating point single precision
d 8-byte floating point double precision

Default format is scanline orientation of ASCII numbers: -ZTLa. Note that -Z only applies to 1-column output.
Selects binary output. Append s for single precision [Default is d (double)]. Uppercase S or D will force byte-swapping. Optionally, append ncol, the number of desired columns in your binary output file. [Default is 3]. This option only applies to xyz output; see -Z for z table output.
Special formatting of input and/or output columns (time or geographical data). Specify i or o to make this apply only to input or output [Default applies to both]. Give one or more columns (or column ranges) separated by commas. Append T (absolute calendar time), t (relative time in chosen TIME_UNIT since TIME_EPOCH), x (longitude), y (latitude), or f (floating point) to each column or column range item. Shorthand -f[i|o]g means -f[i|o]0x,1y (geographic coordinates). See also TIME COORDINATES below.


The ASCII output formats of numerical data are controlled by parameters in your .gmtdefaults4 file. Longitude and latitude are formatted according to OUTPUT_DEGREE_FORMAT, whereas other values are formatted according to D_FORMAT. Be aware that the format in effect can lead to loss of precision in the output, which can lead to various problems downstream. If you find the output is not written with enough precision, consider switching to binary output (-bo if available) or specify more decimals using the D_FORMAT setting.


GMT is able to recognize many of the commonly used grid file formats, as well as the precision, scale and offset of the values contained in the grid file. When GMT needs a little help with that, you can add the suffix =id[/scale/offset[/nan]], where id is a two-letter identifier of the grid type and precision, and scale and offset are optional scale factor and offset to be applied to all grid values, and nan is the value used to indicate missing data. See grdreformat(1) and Section 4.17 of the GMT Technical Reference and Cookbook for more information.

When reading a netCDF file that contains multiple grids, GMT will read, by default, the first 2-dimensional grid that can find in that file. To coax GMT into reading another multi-dimensional variable in the grid file, append ?varname to the file name, where varname is the name of the variable. Note that you may need to escape the special meaning of ? in your shell program by putting a backslash in front of it, or by placing the filename and suffix between quotes or double quotes. See grdreformat(1) and Section 4.18 of the GMT Technical Reference and Cookbook for more information, particularly on how to read splices of 3-, 4-, or 5-dimensional grids.


Time coordinates in netCDF grids, be it the x, y, or z coordinate, will be recognized as such. The variable's unit attribute is parsed to determine the unit and epoch of the time coordinate in the grid. Values are then converted to the internal time system specified by TIME_UNIT and TIME_EPOCH in the .gmtdefaults file or on the command line. The default output is relative time in that time system, or absolute time when using the option -f0T, -f1T, or -f2T for x, y, or z coordinate, respectively.


To edit individual values in the 5' by 5' hawaii_grv.grd file, dump the .grd to ASCII:

grd2xyz hawaii_grv.grd >

To write a single precision binary file without the x,y positions from the file raw_data.grd file, using scanline orientation, run

grd2xyz raw_data.grd -ZTLf > hawaii_grv.b


gmtdefaults(1), GMT(1), grdedit(1), xyz2grd(1)
On n'échappe pas à un infini, en fuyant vers un autre infini.
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