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Langue: en

Version: 331298 (ubuntu - 24/10/10)

Section: 1 (Commandes utilisateur)


grdreformat - Converting between different grid file formats.


grdreformat ingrdfile[=id[/scale/offset[/NaNvalue]]] outgrdfile[=id[/scale/offset[/NaNvalue]]] [ -N ] [ -Rwest/east/south/north[r] ] [ -f[i|o]colinfo ] [ -V ]


grdreformat reads a grid file in one format and writes it out using another format. As an option the user may select a subset of the data to be written and to specify scaling, translation, and NaN-value.
The grid file to be read. Append format =id code if not a standard COARDS-compliant netCDF grid file. If =id is set (see below), you may optionally append scale and offset. These options will scale the data and then offset them with the specified amounts after reading.
If scale and offset are supplied you may also append a value that represents 'Not-a-Number' (for floating-point grids this is unnecessary since the IEEE NaN is used; however integers need a value which means no data available.)
The grid file to be written. Append format =id code if not a standard COARDS-compliant netCDF grid file. If =id is set (see below), you may optionally append scale and offset. These options are particularly practical when storing the data as integers, first removing an offset and then scaling down the values. Since the scale and offset are applied in reverse order when reading, this does not affect the data values (except for round-offs).
If scale and offset are supplied you may also append a value that represents 'Not-a-Number' (for floating-point grids this is unnecessary since the IEEE NaN is used; however integers need a value which means no data available.)


Suppress the writing of the GMT header structure. This is useful when you want to write a native grid to be used by grdraster. It only applies to native grids and is ignored for netCDF output.
xmin, xmax, ymin, and ymax specify the Region of interest. For geographic regions, these limits correspond to west, east, south, and north and you may specify them in decimal degrees or in [+-]dd:mm[][W|E|S|N] format. Append r if lower left and upper right map coordinates are given instead of w/e/s/n. The two shorthands -Rg and -Rd stand for global domain (0/360 and -180/+180 in longitude respectively, with -90/+90 in latitude). Alternatively, specify the name of an existing grid file and the -R settings (and grid spacing, if applicable) are copied from the grid. For calendar time coordinates you may either give (a) relative time (relative to the selected TIME_EPOCH and in the selected TIME_UNIT; append t to -JX|x), or (b) absolute time of the form [date]T[clock] (append T to -JX|x). At least one of date and clock must be present; the T is always required. The date string must be of the form [-]yyyy[-mm[-dd]] (Gregorian calendar) or yyyy[-Www[-d]] (ISO week calendar), while the clock string must be of the form hh:mm:ss[.xxx]. The use of delimiters and their type and positions must be exactly as indicated (however, input, output and plot formats are customizable; see gmtdefaults).
Selects verbose mode, which will send progress reports to stderr [Default runs "silently"].
Special formatting of input and/or output columns (time or geographical data). Specify i or o to make this apply only to input or output [Default applies to both]. Give one or more columns (or column ranges) separated by commas. Append T (absolute calendar time), t (relative time in chosen TIME_UNIT since TIME_EPOCH), x (longitude), y (latitude), or f (floating point) to each column or column range item. Shorthand -f[i|o]g means -f[i|o]0x,1y (geographic coordinates).


By default, grids will be written as floating point data stored in binary files using the netCDF format and meta-data structure. This format is conform the COARDS conventions. GMT versions prior to 4.1 produced netCDF files that did not conform to these conventions. Although these files are still supported, their use is deprecated. To write other than floating point COARDS-compliant netCDF files, append the =id suffix to the filename outgrdfile.
When reading files, grdreformat and other GMT programs will automatically recognize any type of netCDF grid file. These can be in either COARDS-compliant or pre-4.1 format, and contain floating-point or integer data. To read other types of grid files, append the =id suffix to the filename ingrdfile.

id     GMT 3 netCDF legacy formats

cb     GMT netCDF format (byte) (deprecated)

cs     GMT netCDF format (short) (deprecated)

ci     GMT netCDF format (int) (deprecated)

cf     GMT netCDF format (float) (deprecated)

cd     GMT netCDF format (double) (deprecated)

id     GMT native binary formats

bm     GMT native, C-binary format (bit-mask)

bb     GMT native, C-binary format (byte)

bs     GMT native, C-binary format (short)

bi     GMT native, C-binary format (int)

bf     GMT native, C-binary format (float)

bd     GMT native, C-binary format (double)

id     GMT 4 netCDF standard

nb     GMT netCDF format (byte) (COARDS-compliant)

ns     GMT netCDF format (short) (COARDS-compliant)

ni     GMT netCDF format (int) (COARDS-compliant)

nf     GMT netCDF format (float) (COARDS-compliant) [DEFAULT]

nd     GMT netCDF format (double) (COARDS-compliant)

id     Misc formats

rb     SUN rasterfile format (8-bit standard)

rf     GEODAS grid format GRD98 (NGDC)

sf     Golden Software Surfer format 6 (float)

sd     Golden Software Surfer format 7 (double, read-only)

af     Atlantic Geoscience Center format AGC (float)

gd     Import through GDAL (convert to float) -- NON-STANDARD


The standard format used for gdrfiles is based on netCDF and conforms to the COARDS conventions. Files written in this format can be read by numerous third-party programs and are platform-independent. Some disk-space can be saved by storing the data as bytes or shorts in stead of integers. Use the scale and offset parameters to make this work without loss of data range or significance. For more details, see Appendix B.

Multi-variable grid files
By default, GMT programs will read the first 2-dimensional grid contained in a COARDS-compliant netCDF file. Alternatively, use ingrdfile?varname (ahead of any optional suffix =id) to specify the requested variable varname. Since ? has special meaning as a wildcard, escape this meaning by placing the full filename and suffix between quotes.

Multi-dimensional grids
To extract one layer or level from a 3-dimensional grid stored in a COARDS-compliant netCDF file, append both the name of the variable and the index associated with the layer (starting at zero) in the form: ingrdfile?varname[layer]. Alternatively, specify the value associated with that layer using parentheses in stead of brackets: ingridfile?varname(level).
In a similar way layers can be extracted from 4- or even 5-dimensional grids. For example, if a grid has the dimensions (parameter, time, depth, latitude, longitude), a map can be selected by using: ingridfile?varname(parameter,time,depth).
Since question marks, brackets and parentheses have special meanings on the command line, escape these meanings by placing the full filename and suffix between quotes.


For binary native GMT files the size of the GMT grdheader block is hsize = 892 bytes, and the total size of the file is hsize + nx * ny * item_size, where item_size is the size in bytes of each element (1, 2, 4). Bit grids are stored using 4-byte integers, each holding 32 bits, so for these files the size equation is modified by using ceil (nx / 32) * 4 instead of nx. Note that these files are platform-dependent. Files written on Little Endian machines (e.g. PCs) can not be read on Big Endian machines (e.g. most workstations). Also note that it is not possible for GMT to determine uniquely if a 4-byte grid is float or int; in such cases it is best to use the =ID mechanism to specify the file format. For header and grid details, see Appendix B.


Regardless of the precision of the input data, GMT programs that create grid files will internally hold the grids in 4-byte floating point arrays. This is done to conserve memory and furthermore most if not all real data can be stored using 4-byte floating point values. Data with higher precision (i.e., double precision values) will lose that precision once GMT operates on the grid or writes out new grids. To limit loss of precision when processing data you should always consider normalizing the data prior to processing.


To extract the second layer from a 3-dimensional grid named temp from a COARDS-compliant netCDF file climate.grd:

grdreformat climate.grd?temp[1] temp.grd -V

To create a 4-byte native floating point grid from the COARDS-compliant netCDF file data.grd:

grdreformat data.grd ras_data.b4=bf -V

To make a 2-byte short integer file, scale it by 10, subtract 32000, setting NaNs to -9999, do

grdreformat values.grd shorts.i2=bs/10/-32000/-9999 -V

To create a Sun standard 8-bit rasterfile for a subset of the data file image.grd, assuming the range in image.grd is 0-1 and we need 0-255, run

grdreformat image.grd -R-60/-40/-40/-30 image.ras8=rb/255/0 -V

To convert etopo2.grd to etopo2.i2 that can be used by grdraster, try

grdreformat etopo2.grd etopo2.i2=bs -N -V


GMT(1), grdmath(1)
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parce que je connais mes erreurs, mes qualités, mes victoires et mes
défaites. Si je passe mon temps à prendre un autre modèle comme modèle,
comment veux-tu que ce modèle puisse modeler dans la bonne ligne ?"
-+- Jean-Claude VanDamme -+-