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Langue: en

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Version: 2008-07-18 (ubuntu - 07/07/09)

Section: 1 (Commandes utilisateur)

NAME - Make and run Perl Archives


(Please see pp for convenient ways to make self-contained executables, scripts or PAR archives from perl programs.)

To make a PAR distribution from a CPAN module distribution:

     % -p                 # make a PAR dist under the current path
     % -p Foo-0.01        # assume unpacked CPAN dist in Foo-0.01/

To manipulate a PAR distribution:

     % -i Foo-0.01-i386-freebsd-5.8.0.par # install
     % -i         # auto-appends archname + perlver
     % -i cpan://AUTRIJUS/PAR-0.74        # uses CPAN author directory
     % -u Foo-0.01-i386-freebsd-5.8.0.par # uninstall
     % -s Foo-0.01-i386-freebsd-5.8.0.par # sign
     % -v Foo-0.01-i386-freebsd-5.8.0.par # verify

To use from ./foo.par:

     % -A./foo.par -MHello
     % -A./foo -MHello    # the .par part is optional

Same thing, but search foo.par in the @INC;

     % -Ifoo.par -MHello
     % -Ifoo -MHello      # ditto

Run or script/ from foo.par:

     % foo.par    # looks for '' by default,
                                 # otherwise run ''

To make a self-containing script containing a PAR file :

     % -O./ foo.par
     % ./          # same as above

To embed the necessary non-core modules and shared objects for PAR's execution (like "Zlib", "IO", "Cwd", etc), use the -b flag:

     % -b -O./ foo.par
     % ./          # runs anywhere with core modules installed

If you also wish to embed core modules along, use the -B flag instead:

     % -B -O./ foo.par
     % ./          # runs anywhere with the perl interpreter

This is particularly useful when making stand-alone binary executables; see pp for details.


This stand-alone command offers roughly the same feature as "perl -MPAR", except that it takes the pre-loaded .par files via "-Afoo.par" instead of "-MPAR=foo.par".

Additionally, it lets you convert a CPAN distribution to a PAR distribution, as well as manipulate such distributions. For more information about PAR distributions, see PAR::Dist.

Binary PAR loader (parl)

If you have a C compiler, or a pre-built binary package of PAR is available for your platform, a binary version of will also be automatically installed as parl. You can use it to run .par files:
     # runs script/ in archive, uses its lib/* as libraries
     % parl myapp.par     # runs or script/ in myapp.par
     % parl          # also runs normal perl scripts

However, if the .par archive contains either or script/, it is used instead:

     % parl myapp.par     # runs, with '' as @ARGV

Finally, the "-O" option makes a stand-alone binary executable from a PAR file:

     % parl -B -Omyapp myapp.par
     % ./myapp                   # run it anywhere without perl binaries

With the "--par-options" flag, generated binaries can act as "parl" to pack new binaries:

     % ./myapp --par-options -Omyap2 myapp.par   # identical to ./myapp
     % ./myapp --par-options -Omyap3 myap3.par   # now with different PAR

Stand-alone executable format

The format for the stand-alone executable is simply concatenating the following elements:
The executable itself

Either in plain-text ( or native executable format (parl or parl.exe).

Any number of embedded files

These are typically used for bootstrapping PAR's various XS dependencies. Each section contains:

The magic string ""FILE""
Length of file name in "pack('N')" format plus 9
8 bytes of hex-encoded CRC32 of file content
A single slash (""/"")
The file name (without path)
File length in "pack('N')" format
The file's content (not compressed)
One PAR file

This is just a zip file beginning with the magic string ""PK\003\004"".

Ending section

The pre-computed cache name. A pack('Z40') string of the value of -T (--tempcache) or the hash of the file, followed by "\0CACHE". The hash of the file is calculated with Digest::SHA, Digest::SHA1, or Digest::MD5. If none of those modules is available, the "mtime" of the file is used.

A pack('N') number of the total length of FILE and PAR sections, followed by a 8-bytes magic string: ""\\012"".


PAR, PAR::Dist, parl, pp


Audrey Tang <>

<> is the official PAR website. You can write to the mailing list at <>, or send an empty mail to <> to participate in the discussion.

Please submit bug reports to <>.

Copyright 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006 by Audrey Tang <>.

Neither this program nor the associated parl program impose any licensing restrictions on files generated by their execution, in accordance with the 8th article of the Artistic License:

     "Aggregation of this Package with a commercial distribution is
     always permitted provided that the use of this Package is embedded;
     that is, when no overt attempt is made to make this Package's
     interfaces visible to the end user of the commercial distribution.
     Such use shall not be construed as a distribution of this Package."

Therefore, you are absolutely free to place any license on the resulting executable, as long as the packed 3rd-party libraries are also available under the Artistic License.

This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the same terms as Perl itself.

See <>

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