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Version: 371019 (fedora - 01/12/10)

Section: 1 (Commandes utilisateur)


v.distance - Finds the nearest element in vector 'to' for elements in vector 'from'. Various information about this relation may be uploaded to the attribute table of input vector 'from' or printed to stdout.


vector, database, attribute table


v.distance help
v.distance [-pa] from=name to=name [from_type=string[,string,...]] [to_type=string[,string,...]] [from_layer=integer] [to_layer=integer] [output=name] [dmax=float] upload=string[,string,...] column=name[,name,...] [to_column=name] [table=name] [--overwrite] [--verbose] [--quiet]



Print output to stdout, don't update attribute table
First column is always category of 'from' feature called from_cat

Calculate distances to all features within the threshold
The output is written to stdout but may be uploaded to a new table created by this module. From categories are may be multiple.

Allow output files to overwrite existing files

Verbose module output

Quiet module output



Name of existing vector map

Name of existing vector map

From type
Feature type(s)
Options: point,centroid
Default: point

To type
Feature type(s)
Options: point,line,boundary,centroid,area
Default: point,line,area

From layer
A single vector map can be connected to multiple database tables. This number determines which table to use.
Default: 1

To layer
A single vector map can be connected to multiple database tables. This number determines which table to use.
Default: 1

Name for output vector map containing lines connecting nearest elements

Maximum distance or -1 for no limit
Default: -1

Values describing the relation between two nearest features
Options: cat,dist,to_x,to_y,to_along,to_angle,to_attr
cat: category of the nearest feature
dist: minimum distance to nearest feature
to_x: x coordinate of the nearest point on 'to' feature
to_y: y coordinate of the nearest point on 'to' feature
to_along: distance between points/centroids in 'from' map and the linear feature's start point in 'to' map, along this linear feature
to_angle: angle between the linear feature in 'to' map and the positive x axis, at the location of point/centroid in 'from' map, counterclockwise, in radians, which is between -PI and PI inclusive
to_attr: attribute of nearest feature given by to_column option

Column name(s) where values specified by 'upload' option will be uploaded

Column name of nearest feature (used with upload=to_attr)

Name of table created for output when the distance to all flag is used


v.distance finds the nearest element in vector map (to) for elements in vector map (from). Various information about the vectors' relationships (distance, category, etc.) may be uploaded to the attribute table attached to the first vector map, or printed to cqstdout'. A new vector map may be created where lines connecting nearest points on features are written.


If a nearest feature does not have a category, the attribute column is updated to null. This is true also for areas, which means for example, that if a point is in an island (area WITHOUT category), v.distance does not search for the nearest area WITH category; the island is identified as the nearest and category updated to null.

The upload column(s) must already exist. Create one with v.db.addcol.

In lat-long locations v.distance gives distances (dist and to_along) in meters not in degrees calculated as geodesic distances on a sphere.


Find nearest lines

Find nearest lines in vector map ln for points from vector map pnt within the given threshold and write related line categories to column linecat in an attribute table attached to vector map pnt:
v.distance from=pnt to=ln upload=cat column=linecat

Find nearest area

For each point from vector map pnt, find nearest area from map ar within the given threshold and write the related area categories to column areacat in an attribute table attached to vector map pnt (in the case that a point falls into a polygon area, the distance is zero):
v.distance from=pnt to=ar upload=cat column=areacat

Create a new vector map

Create a new vector map which contains lines connecting nearest features of maps pnt and map ln. The resulting vector map can be used for example to connect points to a network as needed for network analysis:
v.distance -p from=pnt to=ln out=connections upload=dist column=dist

Query information

Query information from selected point(s). v.distance takes points from a vector map as input instead of stdin. A new vector map with query points has to be created before the map can be analysed.

Create query map (if not present):
echo "123456|654321|1" | output=pnt
Find nearest features:
v.distance from=pnt to=map_to_query upload=cat col=somecol -p


Find area from vector map ar for each point from vector map pnt in which the individual point falls, and write the related area categories to column areacat into the attribute table attached to vector map pnt:
v.distance from=pnt to=ar dmax=0 upload=cat column=areacat

Univariate statistics on results

Create a vector map containing connecting lines and investigate mean distance to targets. An alternative solution is to use the v.distance upload=dist option to upload distances into the bugs vector directly, then run v.univar on that. Also note you can upload two columns at a time, e.g. v.distance upload=cat,dist column=nearest_id,dist_to_nr.
# create working copy
g.copy vect=bugsites,bugs

# add new attribute column to hold nearest archsite category number
v.db.addcol map=bugs column="nrst_arch INTEGER"

v.distance from=bugs to=archsites to_type=point upload=to_attr rs

  to_column=cat column=nrst_arch out=vdistance_vectors_raw

# we need to give the lines category numbers, create a table, and create
# a column in that table to hold the distance data.
v.category vdistance_vectors_raw out=vdistance_vectors type=line op=add
g.remove v=vdistance_vectors_raw

v.db.addtable map=vdistance_vectors column="length DOUBLE" map=vdistance_vectors option=length column=length

# calculcate statistics. Use for extended statistics.
v.univar vdistance_vectors column=length

v.distance -pa from=archsites to=archsites upload=dist col=dist
Note: Matrix-like output is enabled only for flag -a and one given upload option.


r.distance, v.db.addcol, v.what.vect


Janne Soimasuo 1994, University of Joensuu, Faculty of Forestry, Finland
Cmd line coordinates support: Markus Neteler, ITC-irst, Trento, Italy
Updated for 5.1: Radim Blazek, ITC-irst, Trento, Italy
Martix-like output by Martin Landa, FBK-irst, Trento, Italy

Last changed: $Date: 2008-01-16 21:10:07 +0100 (Wed, 16 Jan 2008) $

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