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zebedee

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Langue: en

Version: 2006-10-11 (ubuntu - 07/07/09)

Section: 1 (Commandes utilisateur)

NAME

Zebedee --- a simple, free, secure TCP and UDP tunnel program

SYNOPSIS

Server:
zebedee -s [-dDtu] [-c host] [-f file] [-k keybits] [-n name] [-o logfile] [-r ports] [-T port] [-v level] [-x config] [-z level] [target ...]
Client:
zebedee [-dDlmtu] [-e command] [-f file] [-k keybits] [-n name] [-o log] [-T port] [-v level] [-x config] [-z level] [server] [tunnel-spec ...]
Key generation:
zebedee -p [-f file]

zebedee -P [-p] [-f file]

Hash generation:
zebedee -h [file ...]

zebedee -H string ...

Windows Service:
zebedee [-n name] -S [install[=file] | remove | run]

DESCRIPTION

Zebedee is a simple program to establish an encrypted, compressed ``tunnel'' for TCP/IP or UDP traffic between two systems. This allows data from, for example, telnet, ftp and X sessions to be protected from snooping. You can also use compression, either with or without data encryption, to gain performance over low-bandwidth networks.

The main goals for Zebedee are to:

Provide client and server functionality under both UNIX and Windows 95/98/NT.
Be easy to install, use and maintain with little or no configuration required.
Have a small footprint, low wire protocol overhead and give significant traffic reduction by the use of compression.
Use only algorithms that are either unpatented or for which the patent has expired.
Be entirely free for commercial or non-commercial use and distributed under the term of the GNU General Public Licence (see ``CREDITS AND LEGALITIES'').

Of course, Zebedee is by no means the first, or only secure tunnel program available. It does not pretend to compete with the likes of ssh or SSL in terms of breadth of function but if you want something quick, simple and completely free then it may be the tool for you.

This document describes the features of Zebedee as at release 2.1.0.

What's in a name?

In case you were wondering, or even if you weren't, Zebedee is named after its three main components:

Zlib compression
Blowfish encryption and
Diffie-Hellman key agreement.

So now you know!

Basic Usage

To set up a secure connection between your local machine and a remote host you need first to run Zebedee in server mode on the remote system. The easiest way to do this is to run Zebedee with the -s option. Like this:

  zebedee -s
 
 

If all goes well (and it should!) Zebedee will detach from the terminal (or console window under Windows) and run in the background. It will then be listening for incoming requests from clients.

On your local machine you then run Zebedee in client mode. You need to specify the name of the remote machine and the name of the service or number of the port to which the tunnel should be established --- we will call this the ``target'' port. If the remote machine is called "remhost" and you want to set up a secure telnet session then you would run:

  zebedee remhost:telnet
 
 

In fact, if you don't specify a service or port the default is telnet so

  zebedee remhost
 
 

would do just as well in this instance. When you run this command it will print out a message telling you the port number which is the local end of the tunnel. Zebedee will then detach from the terminal and run in the background waiting for you to connect to the local port. If, for example, the port number it printed out was 1234 then to connect to "remhost" using the secure tunnel you would run:

  telnet localhost 1234
 
 

By default, Zebedee will continue to listen for connections and tunnel them, handling multiple simultaneous connections if necessary, until you terminate the process.

Sometimes you will want to start Zebedee and then run a command that connects to the port straight away. You can do this in a single invocation of Zebedee as follows:

  zebedee -e "telnet localhost %d" remhost
 
 

The "%d" in the string is automatically replaced with the local port number so there is no need for Zebedee to print it out. If you specify a command like this then the local Zebedee client will exit once the command closes its connection.

You may want or need to control the local port number that the client uses. This is necessary if the command whose connection you are trying to protect expects to connect only to a specific port. In this case you can also specify the local port number by invoking Zebedee as follows:

  zebedee clientport:hostname:targetport
 
 

So, for example, the command:

  zebedee 8000:webhost:80
 
 

will allow you to secure all HTTP connections to webhost if accessed via port 8000 on the client system. See EXAMPLES for more details.

You can also use a single Zebedee client to handle multiple simultaneous tunnels to different target ports on the same remote host. In this case the client and target port specifications are lists of ports. For example:

  zebedee 9001,9002,9003:somehost:daytime,telnet,ftp
 
 

This will tunnel traffic on the clientport 9001 to the daytime port on the remote target system, traffic on 9002 to the telnet port and traffic on 9003 to the ftp port.

This combination of client listening ports, target host and destination ports is called a ``tunnel speciification''. See the tunnel keyword for more details.

UDP Tunnelling

Originally Zebedee was designed only to be able to handle TCP/IP traffic. As of version 2.0.0 it can also handle connectionless UDP data. To enable this start Zebedee with the -u option (or use the udpmode keyword). For example:

  zebedee -s -u
 
 

on the server host and

  zebedee -u 10000:somehost:echo
 
 

on the client. Note that a single client or server can only handle TCP or UDP data, not both. If you need to tunnel both types of data you must run two separate instances. It is safe run both a TCP-mode and a UDP-mode server on the same system because they use different ports.

The tunnel between Zebedee clients and servers still uses a TCP/IP connection even in UDP-mode. This connection is timed out after a certain period of inactivity. It must be re-established if more data arrives. For this reason the performance in UDP mode may appear poor, depending on the nature of the application using it. You should note that there is also a limit on the size of UDP datagrams that can be handled.

For further details see the maxbufsize, udpmode and udptimeout keywords.

Some Terminology

Usually there will only be two systems involved when you set up a tunnel using Zebedee. You will run a client on one and communicate with it via connections to local ports. On the other you will run a server which will speak to services local to that machine. However, there can be up to four different systems involved, as shown below:

  [source] <===> [client] <=====> [server] <===> [target]
             |               |               |
             +- insecure     |               + insecure
                connection   |                 connection
                             +- secure tunnel
 
 

The Zebedee client runs on the ``client'' system and the server runs on the ``server'' host. The inital connection that causes a tunnel to be established between client and server originates from the ``source'' machine. This could be a different system than where the Zebedee client is running, although it is usually the same. The server will ultimately communicate with the ``target'' system. Again, this is usually the local machine but does not have to be.

Most of the time you will not have to be concerned with the distinction between source and client and server and target. The terminology is, however, reflected in a number of the keywords described in the following section so you should bear it in mind when reading their descriptions.

In addition to the different systems involved in Zebedee tunnel there are also several different types of keys used to secure connection. The client and server generate or are provided with private key values. These are used to calculate public values which are exchanged and used to derive a shared secret key using the Diffie-Hellman key agreement mechanism. From this shared key a unique session key is derived to secure an individual connections between client and server.

Multiple Destinations

Prior to version 2.1.0 a single Zebedee client/server pair could only handle tunnels to a single target system. It is now possible, however, to direct tunnels to multiple targets.

When a server is started it can be given a list of valid targets either on the command-line or by using the target keyword. Each target is a host name optionally followed by a list of ports to which connections may be made. Consider the following command run on a machine called serverhost:

  zebedee -s target1:daytime,telnet target2:telnet target3
 
 

the server will allow connections to the daytime and telnet ports on target1, the telnet port on target2 and any port on target3.

Given this server invocation, a client may be started as follows:

  zebedee serverhost 10000:target1:telnet 20000:target3:telnet
 
 

This will connect to the Zebedee server on serverhost and use it to establish tunnels to the telnet port on target1 via the client port 10000 and tunnels to the telnet port on target3 via 20000. Note that the name of the host on which the server is running is given as the first parameter. If the server name is omitted it is determined from the first tunnel specification. So if the server had been running on target3 then the above command could have been given as:

  zebedee 20000:target3:telnet 10000:target1:telnet
 
 

In fact, a server also maintains a notion of a default target. This is the host name of the last target specified. In the example above the default target becomes target3. This is the target used when the server and target names specified by the client are the same. Be careful of this because you may get results that you not expect. For example, if the server was started as:

  zebedee -s target2:telnet target3 target1:daytime,telnet
 
 

then the previous client invocation would result in connections to port 20000 being tunnelled to target1 and not target3. This is because when the server and target specified by the client are the same then the traffic goes to the server's default target. To avoid confusion, if you want to include the server host in a list of multiple destinations then always name it last. Note that as well as a default target host it is also possible to specify a list of default target ports where none are otherwise given. See the redirect keyword for more details.

As with the target keyword for the server, the equivalent of the command-line parameter for the client is the tunnel keyword (and serverhost in order to specify the server host explictly).

Server-Initiated Connections

In normal use a Zebedee client inititates connections to the server when a connection has been made to it from a source system. Sometimes, for example when using Zebedee through a restrictive firewall, it may be necessary for the server to initiate the connection back to the client --- to operate in ``reverse.'' For details on how to do this see the clienthost and listenmode keywords.

Configuration File

The behaviour of Zebedee is probably best controlled through the use of a configuration file. A configuration file can be specified using the -f command-line option. The file is read at the point at which the option is encountered so later command-line options may override the contents of the file.

Lines are of the form:

  keyword value # optional comment
 
 

The keyword is a single, case-insensitive word. The value is either a single word or a string. Strings are enclosed either in double quotes (""like this"") or single quotes ('like this'). Double quotes may appear in single quoted strings and vice versa ("here's an example"). Case is preserved in the values where appropriate.

Blank lines and lines beginning with a ""#"`` (after any leading whitespace) are ignored. Long strings may be continued onto the next line by ending the line with a ''"\"" character. This character is eliminated and the next line is joined on to the end. Note that there is a limit of a total of 1024 characters on any line and its continuations. Line continuation happens before anything else, including comment recognition so the lines:

  server false
  # This comment continues on the next line \
  server true
 
 

will leave the value of server as false.

The keywords and their meanings are as described below. There is a brief description of all the keywords in the ``Quick-Reference Summary'' section. Some, but not all, keywords have equivalent command-line options. These are shown where available. There are also a few command-line options that have no equivalent in the configuration file. These are described at the end of this section.

If a keyword is described as being a boolean then its value must be one of the words true or false.

Several keywords require a list of ports to be specfied. Where this the case the value is string that consists of a comma or white-space delimited list of port names, numbers or numeric ranges. For example ""telnet, ftp 5900-5903"``. This is equivalent to the list ''"23,21,5900,5901,5902,5903"".

A number of the keywords are either only applicable to clients or only applicable to servers. The same Zebedee program runs as either client or server and will silently ignore inappropriate options for the current type of usage. The choice of client or server behaviour is controlled by the server keyword:

server (command-line -s)
This is a boolean indicating whether the program should run as a client or a server. The default is to run as a client if this keyword is not specified. The command-line -s option is equivalent to setting this keyword to true.

Client-Only Keywords

The following keywords apply only to Zebedee clients:

command (command-line -e)
When running as a client, this is a command that will be spawned to run connected to the tunnel. If the value contains the character sequence "%d" this will be replaced at run-time with the local port number (see the tunnel keyword). As this is done using sprintf the conventions of that routine apply with regards to escaping ""%"`` characters (i.e. use ''"%%"`` to generate a single ''"%"``). In addition, specifying more that one ''%d" or other format sequence will very likely crash the program.

Once the command closes its connection Zebedee will exit. Using this keyword or option implicitly turns off multi-use mode (see multiuse). You can not use automatic command spawning when a single Zebedee client is handling multiple connections in multiuse mode or when a list of ports has been specified with the tunnel keyword or on the command-line.

listenmode (command-line -l)
In normal use a Zebedee client inititates connections to the server when a connection has been made to it from a source system. Sometimes, for example when using Zebedee through a restrictive firewall, it may be necessary for the server to initiate the connection with a client --- to operate in ``reverse.''

The listenmode keyword, if true, causes a Zebedee client to listen for connections initiated by the server rather than to connect directly. A connection from a server will not be accepted until a matching connection from the source system has been made. However, server connections could originate from arbitrary addresses then giving the client no control over the destination of the tunnel. To avoid this the client will validate that the address of the server's connection matches that specified, whether on the command-line, via the serverhost keyword or as part of the first tunnel specification.

As a special case, if the server name is ""*"" then connections will be accepted from any server address. Use of the identity checking features is also recommended to ensure that the correct server connects.

If a connection from a server is not received within a certain period then the connection back to the source system will be closed and the process abandoned. This timeout is controlled by the connecttimeout keyword. The default is 300 seconds.

See the clienthost keyword for the description of the server side of this process.

localsource
If this value is true then the client will only accept connections originating from the local machine. In other words the ``source'' system must be the same as the ``client'' system.

The default is for this value to be false and for connections to be allowed from any arbitrary source machine.

multiuse (command-line -m)
If this value is true, which is the default, then the Zebedee client will handle multiple (potentially simultaneous) connection requests and will establish a new tunnel to the server for each one. If it is false, the client runs in ``single-use'' mode and exits after the first connection to the server has been closed.

The command-line -m option is equivalent to setting this to true. This is the default behaviour in the current version of Zebedee and the option is retained only for backwards-compatibility reasons.

Any client listening on multiple ports will automatically run in ``multi-use'' mode, even if this is set false (see clientport).

serverhost
This is the name of the host on which a Zebedee server is running and to which a tunnel is to be connected. There is no default and a host name must be specified either in a configuration file or on the command line.

See the listenmode keyword for the treatment of this value when using server-initiated connections.

Prior to version 2.0.0 this was known as the remotehost keyword. This is still recognised for backwards compatibility.

tunnel
This is a string that consists of three parts separated by colons, for example:
  10000-10002:targethost:echo,telnet,daytime
 
 

The first part is the list of ports on which the Zebedee client will listen for connections. The second part is the name of the target host to which the tunnelled data should be directed. The final part is the list of target ports that correspond to the ports on which the client is listening. The numbers of entries in the client and target port lists must match.

As a special case, if only a single tunnel specification is given with only a single target port then the client port list (and separating colon) may be omitted. The client port will be assigned automatically (and a message will be printed to the terminal giving the port number). This is to allow for backwards compatibility and for use with the command keyword. If the target port is also omitted then it will default to telnet (port 23).

As described in the section ``Multiple Destinations'' if the Zebedee server host is not explicitly specified, either as the first argument on the command-line or via the serverhost keyword, then it will be taken from the first tunnel specification found.

There is also one final variant of the tunnel specification. In this case the targethost is replaced by a ""*"``. This wild-card form is used either with the client running in ''listen-mode" (see listenmode for further details) or when you want to specify tunnelling to the server's default target, whatever it may be. This latter form is useful in a configuration file when you want the file to be generically applicable to any server. For example, a file like this:

  server false
  tunnel 10000:*:daytime
  tunnel 20000:*:echo
  tunnel 30000:*:telnet
 
 

can be used to set up tunnels on ports 10000, 20000 and 30000 to whatever host may be specified on the command-line like this:

  zebedee -f configfile serverhost
 
 

Server-Only Keywords

The following keywords apply only when running as a server:

clienthost (command-line -c)
If a clienthost value is specified then the server will immediately attempt to connect to the specified host (on the port given by serverport). There must already be a client running in ``listen-mode'' (see listenmode) at that address. Once a connection to the client has been established the protocol exchanges proceed as normal.

Each time a connection has been accepted by the client the server tentatively opens up another one so that the client could establish further tunnels if necessary. If the connection is not accepted within a certain period then it will be closed and the server will exit once all currently active tunnels have been closed. The timeout is controlled by the connecttimeout keyword. The default is 300 seconds.

Note that Zebedee does not itself provide a mechanism for co-ordinating the starting of client and server to set up a ``reverse'' tunnel. That must be handled by some ``out-of-band'' mechanism.

redirect (command-line -r)
This is a list of the ports on the target system to which the server will accept requests to redirect data. For example ""telnet, ftp, 5900-5910"". If no redirect keyword is specified then requests to redirect traffic to any port will be accepted. While this is convenient for testing it may pose a security risk so you should specify an explict list of allowed ports if at all possible.

The keyword (or -r option) may be specified multiple times in which case redirection will be allowed to any of the ports specified.

target
This specifies a target host and, optionally, list of ports to which a server will accept requests to redirect data. It is a string consisting of the target host name followed by a colon and then a list of ports. For example
  target www.winton.org.uk:http,ftp
 
 

If the port list (and colon) are omitted then requests for redirection will be controlled by the ports given by the redirect statements, if any.

This keyword is equivalent to the comnmand-line arguments of the same form (see ``Multiple Destinations''). It may be repeated multiple times. The final target host specified, either using the this keyword or on the command line, becomes the default destination for tunnels when a client specifies the server's host-name as the destination.

Compression and Encryption Keywords

The following keywords control the compression and encryption of data passing through the tunnel. They apply to both clients and servers:

compression (command-line -z)
Zebedee can support both zlib and, if enabled when it is built, bzip2 compression. This keyword specifies the type and level of compression to be used. The value is of the form type:level where type is either ""zlib"`` or ''"bzip2"" and level is an integer from 0 to 9. As a special case an integer without any prefix implicitly selects a zlib compression level.

The level specifies the maximum compression level to used (9 is the maximum and 0 is no compression). The actual compression level used will be the minimum of the client's and server's values. For these purposes all bzip2 levels (except 0) are considered to be greater than all zlib levels so if either client or server does not support bzip2 the protocol degrades gracefully to using zlib. The default compression value is ""zlib:6"".

Note that, because of the way that bzip2 compression works and the buffer sizes that Zebedee uses, bzip will probably only be useful if continuous streams of data are flowing. On smaller transfers, such as those in a normal telnet session, zlib will usually win. You will have to experiment to see what works best for you. In addition, because the buffer size is small there is no gain from using bzip2 levels above 1 and Zebedee will round any higher values down to this level.

You can see exactly how much compression is gaining you at verbosity levels 2 and above when basic statistics are printed out on connection termination. For example:

  zebedee(232/210):   read 166 bytes (265 expanded) in 3 messages
  zebedee(232/210):   wrote 20969 bytes (30499 expanded) in 247 messages
 
 
generator
This is the ``generator'' for the Diffie-Hellman key exchange and is a hexadecimal string. The default value is ``2''. I recommend that you don't mess with this unless you know what you are doing.
keygencommand
If this key is specified its value is a command string that will be executed in order to generate a private key. The command should write a single line of hexadecimal digits to stdout. This line must be a string of at least 10 hexadecimal digits.
keygenlevel
This is an integer between 0 and 2 inclusive that determines how strong the private key generation in Zebedee should be. The default is 2 (the strongest) and you should generally not change this unless connection set-up performance becomes unacceptable.

Briefly, on UNIX-like systems the level-2 key generation mechanism uses "/dev/urandom" or "/dev/random", if either of these devices is available, to obtain good pseudo-random data based on the state of the running kernel. If no random-data device is available or the level is set to 1 then data from the current contents of the "/proc" file-system, if there is one, will be used otherwise at level 0 only data from the current process will be used.

On Windows systems there is currently no distinction between different key generation strength levels and this keyword is effectively ignored.

keylength (command-line -k)
This is an integer specifying the maximum key length (in bits) for the Blowfish encryption. It should be a multiple of 4 between 4 and 576. The key length used will be the minimum of the client's and server's values (subject to any setting of minkeylength).

The default valuse is 128. As a special case setting this value to 0 will turn off key negotiation and encryption.

keylifetime
If the value of this parameter is non-zero it causes the client to request the re-use of a previously established shared secret key for deriving session keys for subsequent connections. This means that on the first connection between a Zebedee client and server the full key exchange dialogue will take place to establish a shared secret key. On subsequent connections, until the key expires, the same secret key will be reused to generate a new session key. Once the key expires a new key exchange will automatically be performed when necessary.

This keyword specifies how long a shared secret key is valid before it must be renegotiated. This does not affect connections that have already been established, only new connections.

The value is in seconds and must be less than or equal to 65535, which is a little over 18 hours. By default it is set to 3600 seconds (one hour). Setting this value to zero effectively disables the use of reusable keys and a full negotiation of a shared key will be performed for each connection --- assuming that both client and server also generate a new private key each time. This will impact performance and is recommended only if you have a very high paranoia level!

minkeylength
If supplied this specified the minimum acceptable key length to be used by client or server. If a client requests a lower level of a server the server will reply with this minimum. If a server replies with a lower level to a client then the client will terminate the connection.

The default value is zero.

modulus
The value of this key is a hexadecimal string specifying the modulus value for the Diffie-Hellman key exchange. Don't alter this unless you are both paranoid and know what you are doing.

The default modulus is the 1024-bit prime:

  f488fd584e49dbcd 20b49de49107366b 336c380d451d0f7c 88b31c7c5b2d8ef6
  f3c923c043f0a55b 188d8ebb558cb85d 38d334fd7c175743 a31d186cde33212c
  b52aff3ce1b12940 18118d7c84a70a72 d686c40319c80729 7aca950cd9969fab
  d00a509b0246d308 3d66a45d419f9c7c bd894b221926baab a25ec355e92f78c7
 
 

This was taken from the file testdh.h in Peter Gutman's CryptLib. The comment in this code says that the value was among those ``generated by Colin Plumb for SKIP''. It further says that ``these values were chosen as representative well-known public values to allay fears of possible trapdoors in self-generated values. The generation method and actual values can be checked against the SKIP standards document.''

privatekey
By default Zebedee will generate a new private key each time one is required. If, however, you wish to use a fixed key then it can be specified as a string of hexadecimal digits. You will definitely need to do this if you wish to use the identity checking feature. Note that the key must be at least 10 digits long.

Miscellaneous Keywords

The following keywords apply equally to clients and servers:

checkidfile
This names a file that contains a set of identities that will be checked before allowing a connection to be completed. This is described further in the description of identity checking. You may specify only one identity file. If this keyword appears multiple times only the last value will be used.

If a keylength of zero has been agreed then no identity checking will be performed.

connecttimeout
When Zebedee is used in ``reverse-mode'' (see listenmode and clienthost) the timeout on waiting for connections to be accepted is controlled by this keyword. Its value is in seconds and may be no greater than 65535. The default is 300 seconds.
debug (command-line -D)
This is a boolean indicating that Zebedee should run in ``debug'' mode. In this case a server (or client running in multiuse mode) only accepts and handles a single connection at a time and does so ``inline'' without creating another process or thread. This is useful when running the program under the control of a debugger. It is false by default. The command-line option -D is equivalent to setting this to true.

Note that this setting will not work correctly in UDP mode, so don't bother trying it!

detached (command-line -d)
This is a boolean indicating whether the process should detach itself from the controlling terminal and run in the background (in UNIX terms, to run as a ``daemon''). This is valid for both client and server and is true by default. The command-line option -d is equivalent to setting this to false.

Note that this does not always seem to work from an interactive command prompt under Windows systems. The symptom is that output to the console window will stop and interrupt signals will be ignored but the console prompt will not be issued until Zebedee terminates. In order to work around this you can use the ``start'' command as in the following example:

  DOS> start zebedee -f server.zbd
 
 

This will start Zebedee in a new console session from which it will then detach. You may see a console window appear briefly before it detaches but Zebedee should be running in the background when it disappears.

include (command-line -f)
This specifies the name of another configuration file to read and parse at this point before continuing with the remainder of the file. It might be used, for example, where a private key is stored in a separate, more tightly protected file. There is a limit of 5 levels deep of include processing (counting the initial configuration file as level 1). This avoids unintentional recursion.
maxbufsize
This specifies the size, in bytes, of the buffer Zebedee will use to read data from applications. The actual size of buffer used will be the minimum of the client's and server's values.

By default Zebedee attempts to read data from the client or server programs at each end of the tunnel in chunks of 8192 bytes. There may be occasions when you want to decrease this if, for example, you have a highly interactive application and the response seems sluggish because you end up waiting for large data transfers. You can reduce the buffer size to one byte, but unless you are trying to debug misbehaviour or have time to waste I don't recommend it! Conversely, you may increase the buffer size up to a maximum of 16383 bytes to attempt to gain the most from data compression where large blocks of data are being transferred. Note that the maxbufsize value does not affect how much memory is allocated by Zebedee, only the size of data chunks read.

When running in UDP mode this buffer size will also affect the maximum size of any datagram that can be handled. Datagrams larger than the current buffer size will be fragmented, which will likely cause whatever application is consuming them to fail. Datagrams larger than 16383 bytes can not be handled at all.

message
The specifies a string that will be logged at verbosity level 1 when it is encountered in the configuration file.
name (command-line -n)
This is the name of the program that is to be used in messages rather than the executable file name. Under Windows it is also the name of any service to be installed or removed.
logfile (command-line -o)
This is the name of the file to which messages will be written. If it is not specified then messages are written to stderr.

Two special ``file names'' are also recognised as valid values. If the name is NULL the all messages will be turned off. If the name is SYSLOG then messages will be written to the host system log. On Windows systems this is the system application event log. Elsewhere messages are written to the syslog service.

serverport (command-line <-T>)
This is the port on which the Zebedee server will listen for tunnel connections. The default is 11965 (0x2EBD) when running in TCP mode and 11230 (0x2BDE) in UDP mode. The keyword causes a server to listen on this port and a client to attempt to connect to this port on the server system.

If using server-initiated connections (see listenmode and clienthost) then this is also the port on which the client listens for the server's incoming connections.

timestamplog (command-line -t)
This is a boolean value indicating whether log messages should contain a time-stamp. The default is not to do so. The command-line option -t is equivalent to setting this to true.
udpmode (command-line -u)
By default Zebedee handles connection-oriented TCP/IP traffic. If this keyword is set true handles UDP/IP connectionless traffic instead.

The tunnel between Zebedee clients and servers still uses a TCP/IP connection. A separate connection is established for each different originating UDP network endpoint. Because UDP is connectionless there is no easy way to tell when the data traffic has been completed. For this reason the Zebedee connection must be timed out after a period of inactivity. This period is controlled by the udptimeout value.

If more data subsequently arrives from a source the tunnel for which has been timed out, the connection must be re-established. For this reason the performance in UDP mode may appear poor, depending on the nature of the application using it. Altering the keylifetime value may improve this by minimizing connection setup times and changing the udptimeout value may also help.

The command-line -u option is equivalent to setting this to true.

udptimeout
By default, UDP-mode tunnels will shut down after 300 seconds of inactivty. This value can be changed by using this keyword to specify the timeout in seconds. It must be no greater than 65535. Setting it to zero is legal but may result in no data being transferred!
verbosity (command-line -v)
This is an integer specifying the level of message logging with 0 being just error messages and 5 giving excruciating detail of the message traffic. The default (and generally most useful level) is 1.

Messages are written to stderr (unless redirected using the -o command-line option or logfile keyword). The general form of messages is something like:

  zebedee(54/119):  Listening on local port 1172
 
 

The numbers in brackets represent the process and thread identifiers of the code logging the message. All error messages are logged at level 0 and are preceded by the word "ERROR", as follows:

  zebedee(54/119): ERROR: failed to connect to localhost:11965
 
 

Messages are indented according to the level at which they are logged.

Obsolete Keywords

As Zebedee has evolved over time some of the keywords have been changed to reflect this. In a few cases keywords have been superseded and made obsolete. These obsolete keywords are still recognised in order to retain backwards compatibility with old configuration files but they should not be used in new ones.

clientport
This keyword has been superseded by the more general tunnel keyword.

This is the port or list of ports on which the Zebedee client will listen for connections. It is equivalent to the first part of a tunnel specification.

localport
This was the name of the clientport keyword prior to version 2.0.0 of Zebedee.
redirecthost
This was the name of the targethost keyword prior to version 2.0.0 of Zebedee.
remoteport
This was the name of the targetport keyword prior to version 2.0.0 of Zebedee.
targethost
This keyword has been superseded by the more general target keyword.

This keyword gives the name of a host to which a Zebedee server will redirect all incoming tunnelled data, rather than to ports on the local machine.

targetport
This keyword has been superseded by the more general tunnel keyword.

It gives the port or list of ports to which the client will request that Zebedee server should establish connections on the target host. It is equivalent to the final part of a tunnel specification.

Other Options

There are a few command-line options that have no equivalent in the configuration file. These are described below.

-p
This causes Zebedee to generate a private key value and to write it to standard output in a form that can be used in a configuration file (see privatekey). For example:
  privatekey "c480bd48f707c69dec54c9e7b6e22dd04cac659e"
 
 
-P
This causes Zebedee to generate a public ``identity'' suitable for use by the identity checking feature. The result is written to standard output. For example:
  ef8153a0e392df005f67321ca2f0ace5bb8c5a1f myhostname
 
 

This option must either be specified with a configuration file that contains a private key value or must be used in conjunction with -p to generate private and public keys simultaneously.

-h
This option causes the remaining command-line arguments to be treated as the names of files. Each file is read in 8192 byte chunks and the SHA hash is calculated. If no arguments are specified or the argument is ""-"" then the standard input is read and the hash of that is calculated. For example:
  $ zebedee -h /etc/passwd
  bb1e734aeffd2111417761f5938dea3b53759598 /etc/passwd
  $ zebedee -h < /etc/passwd
  bb1e734aeffd2111417761f5938dea3b53759598 -
 
 
-H
This is similar to the -h option except that each argument is treated as a literal string and the SHA hash of the string is calculated and printed:
  $ zebedee -H hello world
  ac62a630ca850b4ea07eda664eaecf9480843152 hello
  86bf25ecb8a40b40b885c097c683b6e236fc8085 world
 
 
-S (Windows only)
On Windows systems Zebedee can be installed and run as a ``service'' --- an independently running process that is started automatically at system boot time.

Zebedee can be installed as a service by specifying the install parameter with the name of a configuration file, for example:

  zebedee -Sinstall=c:\zebedee\service.zbd
 
 

You should always specify the full path to the configuration file. This will be read at service start-up and must contain all the parameters required for the service to run.

By default, the name of the installed service will be taken from the name of the program file, and hence is usually zebedee, but you can change this by using the -n option:

  zebedee -n "Zebedee Client Service" -Sinstall=c:\zebedee\clientsvc.zbd
 
 

Once the service has been installed it will be automatically started the next time that the system reboots. Alternatively you can start it manually using the Service Control Panel (under Windows NT).

To remove the service specify first stop it and then use the remove parameter to the -S option, along with any necessary service name using -n. For example:

  zebedee -n "Zebedee Client Service" -Sremove
 
 

There is one further valid parameter to the -S option and this is run. This is used internally by Zebedee to invoke the service start-up code and should not be used directly.

-x
This option can be used to set those configuration parameters that do not have any other direct command-line equivalent. It takes a string as an argument and this string is treated as if it were a line read from a configuration files (including comments but without ``\'' line continuation). So, for example:
  zebedee -x " server true # It's a server!"
 
 

is a rather perverse way of achieving the same effect as:

  zebedee -s
 
 

Quick-Reference Summary

The following table lists the recognised keywords, their argument types, command-line equivalents, validity for client, server or both and a brief description.

  checkidfile    filename       CS  Checks peer identities against the 
  clienthost     hostname  -c   S   Server initiates connection to client host
  command        string    -e   C   Specified command to run connected to tunnel
  compression    level     -z   CS  Requested maximum compression level
  connecttimeout seconds        CS  Timeout for connections to be accepted
  debug          boolean        CS  Run in single-threaded "debug" mode
  detached       boolean   -d   CS  Detach from the terminal/console
  generator      string         CS  Hexadecimal Diffie-Hellman generator value
  include        filename  -f   CS  Read in the named configuration file
  keygencommand  string         CS  Command to run to generate key
  keygenlevel    level          CS  Key generation strength level (0 to 2)
  keylength      bits           CS  Requested maximum keylength in bits
  keylifetime    seconds        CS  Lifetime of shared secret keys
  listenmode     boolean   -l   C   Client listens for server connections
  localsource    boolean        C   Only accepts connections from local machine
  logfile        filename  -o   CS  Set the output log file
  maxbufsize     bytes          CS  Specify buffer size for data reads
  message        string         CS  Output the specified string
  minkeylength   bits           CS  Acceptable minimum keylength in bits
  modulus        string         CS  Hexadecimal Diffie-Hellman modulus value
  multiuse       boolean   -m   C   Handle multiple connections
  name           string         CS  Specify the name of the program
  privatekey     string         CS  Hexadecimal private key string
  redirect       ports     -r   S   Ports to which server will redirect traffic
  server         boolean   -s   CS  Selects server-mode or client-mode
  serverhost     hostname       C   Name of server host to which to connect
  serverport     port      -T   CS  Set the port on which the server listens
  target         spec           S   Specifies allowed target host and ports
  timestamplog   boolean   -t   CS  Add timestamps to the log file
  tunnel         spec           C   Specifies client ports and matching targets
  udpmode        boolean   -u   CS  Handle UDP traffic
  udptimeout     seconds        CS  Inactivity timeout for UDP tunnels
  verbosity      level     -v   CS  Set the message logging level
 
 

Other options that have no keyword equivalents:

  -p  Generate a private key
  -P  Generate a public "identity"
  -h file ...
      Hash file contents and print results
  -H string ...
      Hash string arguments and print results
  -Sinstall=file
      Install Windows service with specified configuration file
  -Sremove
      Remove Windows service
  -x string
      Parse option string
 
 

Identity Checking

By default Zebedee just establishes an encrypted channel between two points. While you know that the data is protected from snooping ``on the wire'' there is no guarantee that the channel ends up where you think it does. It is open to ``man-in-the-middle'' attacks. If you are concerned primarily with using data compression or protecting against casual ``network sniffing'' then you may be happy with this situation. If, however, you want more assurance that your connection is not being redirected then Zebedee provides some basic facilities for doing so.

If the same modulus, generator and private key are used they will always generate the same public value for use in the Diffie-Hellman key exchange protocol. If you use a fixed private key (specified using the privatekey) keyword in a configuration file) then Zebedee can generate a key ``fingerprint'' by hashing together the modulus, generator and public key value. This is done using the -P option, for example, if the file server.key contains the following value:

  privatekey "1e34d6769502bae1087c18d2e8c8776e4a17ddaf"
 
 

then the command

  $ zebedee -P -f server.key > server.id
 
 

will generate output something like this:

  135f04050961d37553731250d5c6f7495f088b32 myhostname
 
 

The initial string of hexadecimal digits is the ``fingerprint''. Anything else on the line is a comment describing the owner of the identity. By default it is the name of the host on which the identity string was generated.

If the checkidfile keyword is specified in a configuration file then its value is the name of a file containing ``fingerprint'' lines. If the identity of the system at the other end of the connection does not match any of those in the file then the connection will be closed.

Notes on Other Security Issues

Message Integrity
In keeping with the desire to keep the protocol overhead as low as possible, Zebedee does not perform any data integrity validation on the transmitted data stream. It is, therefore, possible for an attacker to alter data packets in transit. The encryption used should make it extremely hard for someone to transform them arbitrarily at will --- for example turning ""ls -l"`` into ''"rm -f"" --- but do not depend on Zebedee to protect your application from the effects of being fed random data!
Replay and Insertion Attacks
One possible attack on many networked systems is that of capturing data streams that have a known effect --- for example, a telnet session during which an administrator was known to be performing certain ``dangerous'' actions --- and then replaying it at some later time. This does not require cracking the encrypted data stream itself, merely knowing that the same network packets sent to a server will elicit the same response.

When Zebedee is operating in ``anonymous'' mode the risk of such an attack being successful is low because different keys will be generated and used for every session. However, if the identity checking features are used the keys will be fixed and replay could be a possibility. Zebedee protects against this by generating a unique session key for each connection. Following that, the final part of the connection setup also involves a challenge-response exchange that verifies that the system at the other end of the connection really knows the shared secret key and is not just parrotting back previously recorded data.

In addition, Zebedee uses Blowfish encryption in ``cipher feedback'' mode which means that decryption of any part of the data depends upon successful decryption of all the data packets that have gone before it. The challenge-response exchange ``salts'' the data-stream so even if the protocol being tunnelled is determined a ``known plain-text'' attack is made more difficult.

Key Generation
A poorly-chosen key can compromise even the strongest encryption mechanism. When generating keys Zebedee attempts to gather as much hard-to-guess state data as possible and then ``stir'' it using the SHA hashing algorithm. On modern UNIX systems this generation process should give pretty good keys.

On Windows the available state data is somewhat more predictable, particularly if an attacker has access to the system. Having said that, it should be quite acceptable for most purposes. The comments in the code explain this in more detail if you are interested.

If you are unhappy with the key generation mechanisms then you should call out to an external key generation program using the keygencommand option in a configuration file. Suggestions for improving the built-in capabilities will also be gratefully received!

TROUBLESHOOTING

Although Zebedee should work ``out of the box'' you might encounter some problems. These are most likely during connection setup --- once that has been accomplished the data transfer generally goes smoothly. The eaisest way to see what is happening during the setup process is to use the -v option. You will usually want to combine this with the -d and -D options to stop Zebedee from the terminal and to force it to handle only a single connection at a time. So, for example, you might use the following command to start up a server:
  zebedee -dD -v 3 -s
 
 

Setting the logging level to 3 should show you the main exchanges during connection setup. If you believe there is a problem after this then levels 4 and 5 will show you what message traffic is being exchanged.

EXAMPLES

In the Zebedee distribution there are a number of example configuration files. The following sections describe how they can be used as well as how to use Zebedee to tunnel some specific protocols.

Example Server Configuration

There is an example server configuration file (server.zbd) shipped with the Zebedee distribution. This shows most of the common options.

  #
  # Sample Zebedee server configuration file
  #
  # This shows the use of many, but not all, of the configuration file
  # options available for use by a server.
  #
 
 
  verbosity 2            # Slightly more than basic messages
 
 
  server true            # Yes, it's a server!
  detached true          # Run detached from terminal
  udpmode false          # Are we operating in UDP mode?
 
 
  # Uncomment the following line to log messages to a file
  #
  #  logfile './server.log'
  #
  # Or to log to the system logging facility uncomment this:
  #
  #  logfile SYSLOG
 
 
  # Uncomment the following line if you want to use a fixed private
  # key stored in a static file. The file should contain a line of
  # the form "privatekey hexadecimal-key-string"
  #
  #  include './server.key'
 
 
  keygenlevel 2          # Generate maximum strength private keys
 
 
  # To validate the identity of clients uncomment the following
  # line:
  #
  #  checkidfile './clients.id'
 
 
  # Set up allowed redirection ports.
  # These should be pretty safe -- but it's not a good idea
  # to open up all ports.
 
 
  redirect "telnet ftp"          # Basic services
  redirect 5900-5999             # VNC traffic
  redirect 6000-6010             # X Window System
  redirect "daytime chargen"     # Ports useful for testing
 
 
  targethost localhost           # Redirection is to the local machine
 
 
  compression zlib:9             # Allow maximum zlib compression
  keylength 256                  # Allow keys up to 256 bits
  keylifetime 36000              # Shared keys last 10 hours
  maxbufsize 16383               # Allow maximum possible buffer size
 
 

To test the identity checking facilities you can uncomment the checkidfile line and then use one of the supplied client1.key or client2.key files on the client side.

Use with VNC

One of the reasons behind writing Zebedee was to use it over dial-up lines with VNC. VNC is a free system to provide remote display capabilities using a ``remote frame-buffer'' concept. You can use it to display Windows desktops remotely or, with an ``Xvnc'' server to access an ``X desktop'' from any VNC client machine, or even a Java-enabled browser! See http://www.uk.research.att.com/vnc/ for more details.

The supplied sample server configuration file server.zbd is configured to allow redirection of ports 5900-5999 which will allow tunnelling of VNC sessions. This file can be used on both UNIX and Windows but note that on Windows you must set the ``AllowLoopback'' flag in the registry in order for tunnelling to work. Saving the following snippet (without any leading spaces) in file a and then importing it into regedit will do the trick:

  REGEDIT4
 
 
  [HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\ORL\WinVNC3]
  "AllowLoopback"=dword:00000001
 
 
  [HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\ORL\WinVNC3\Default]
  "AllowLoopback"=dword:00000001
 
 

You will find a file with these contents in the Zebedee distribution by the name vncloopback.reg. Having set these registry entries then the file vncviewer.zbd can be used to invoke a VNC viewer tunnelled to the host named on the command line. Here are the contents of the file vncviewer.zbd:

  #
  # Zebedee configuration file to start up a tunnelled VNC session
  #
  # Usage: zebedee -f vncviewer.zbd remote-host:vnc-port
  #
 
 
  verbosity 1         # Basic messages only
 
 
  server false        # It's a client
  detached true       # Detach from terminal
 
 
  message "Starting VNC viewer"
 
 
  # On Windows systems you might use the following:
 
 
  command '"c:\Program Files\ORL\VNC\vncviewer.exe" localhost:%d'
 
 
  # On UNIX systems you might use the following:
 
 
  # command 'vncviewer localhost:%d'
 
 
  compression 6       # Request normal Zlib compression
 
 

So using this file as follows:

  zebedee -f vncviewer.zbd somehost:5901
 
 

will start a VNC viewer tunnelled to the VNC server on somehost port 5901 (the server you would usually refer to in VNC-parlance as "somehost:1").

VNC also supports a Java viewer. If the server is running on port 59xx then the viewer can be downloaded via port 58xx. However, it appears that the Java viewer communicates the main VNC port number to the client. So, to tunnel traffic when using the Java viewer you must make sure that the local and remote ports use the same numbers. So, for example, to tunnel traffic to a VNC server using port 5901 you should do something like:

  zebedee 5801,5901:remotehost:5801,5901
 
 

This will be problematic if you already have a VNC server running locally on port 5901, but you can usually arrange local and remote VNC servers so that there is no clash.

There is one last point worth mentioning. If you are using compression with VNC it is worth experimenting a bit with the VNC protocol encoding. I have found that ``raw'' encoding often compresses best and sometimes gives better performance with Zebedee over slow links. But, as they say, your mileage may vary!

Use with the X Window System

The X Window System uses ports in the range 6000 onwards.

Let's assume that your local machine called xlocal is running an X server on port 6000. This would be the port normally used by the display known as xlocal:0. You now want to send a secure xterm session back to your local display from a machine called xremote. To do this you might run the following command on xlocal:

  zebedee -r 6000 -s
 
 

Then on xremote you could run:

  zebedee 6001:xlocal:6000
 
 

This means that if the DISPLAY environment variable on xremote is set to "localhost:1" then X traffic will end up on xlocal. So, for example, to send a secured xterm session from xremote to xterm you would run a command like this on xremote:

  xterm -display localhost:1
 
 

Note that in order for this to work correctly you must also add an entry for localhost to the access control list for the X server on xlocal. You can do this by running the following command on xlocal:

  xhost +localhost
 
 

Securing HTTP traffic

Zebedee can be used to secure or just compress all traffic to and from a Web server. So, for example, if a Web server is running on the machine webhost on port 80 and it is also running a Zebedee server then the command:

  zebedee 8000:webhost:80
 
 

will set up a tunnel via port 8000 on the client host. Now any URLs that previously were addressed via webhost, for example:

  http://webhost/private/index.html
 
 

can now be accessed securely as follows:

  http://localhost:8000/private/index.html
 
 

You could redirect all HTTP traffic via the secure tunnel by setting ""localhost:8000"" as your proxy. Be careful, however, only to set this as the proxy for HTTP connections --- other protocols (including Secure HTTP) should be directed elsewhere. It is also possible to configure most browsers to use different proxies for different domains and so secure connections selectively. Consult your browser's documentation for details on how to do this.

Securing FTP traffic

It is possible to protect the FTP control connection (over which the username and password are sent) for many FTP servers using Zebedee ``out of the box'' by following the instructions below. It is also possible to protect the control connection for other servers and even ``passive-mode'' data connections by using Zebedee in conjunction with the ftpgw.tcl script in the Zebedee distribution.

The simplest approach, which works with some FTP servers, is to run the Zebedee server as follows:

  zebedee -s -r ftp ftpserverhost
 
 

Note that even if you are running Zebedee on the same machine as the FTP server you should explictly name it on the command line (or using the redirecthost keyword). Do not refer to it as localhost. On the client system you could then run Zebedee as follows to set up a tunnel via port 10000:

  zebedee 10000:ftpserverhost:ftp
 
 

To connect to the FTP server you would then use a command like:

  ftp clienthost 10000
 
 

Again, use the local client host name not, localhost. If your FTP client does not support specifying the port on the command line, as is the case with the standard Windows FTP client program, you may be able to use the command ""open clienthost 10000"" from within the program. If you are not running an FTP server on the client machine you could also try running Zebedee as:

  zebedee ftp:ftpserverhost:ftp
 
 

and then just invoking the FTP client program as:

  ftp clienthost
 
 

The approach just described will work for FTP servers that do not check that the FTP control and data connections appear to come from the same source. However, some servers such as the widely-used wu-ftpd are more strict about this --- for good security reasons. If you can apparently establish a connection to the server but directory listing and file retrievals fail or hang then it is likely that your server is one of the strict ones.

To help overcome this problem there is an ``FTP gateway'' script in the Zebedee distribution called ftpgw.tcl. This is a program, written using the freely-available Tcl scripting language (see http://www.scriptics.com) that intercepts FTP requests and re-writes them so that a server is shielded from the presence of Zebedee. You should run this on the same system as the Zebedee server. Assuming that the FTP server is also running on the same system you can just run this as:

  tclsh ftpgw.tcl
 
 

This will start the gateway listening on port 2121. Obviously, in real usage you will probably want to start this in the background. You then start the Zebedee server as:

  zebedee -s -r 2121
 
 

Note that in this case you do not have to specify the local host name, although you may do so if you wish. On the client side you can now run:

  zebedee 2121:ftpserverhost:2121
 
 

followed by:

  ftp clienthost 2121
 
 

You must still, however, use the client host name here.

This configuration will allow you to tunnel the FTP control connection but will not affect any data connections. Using ftpgw.tcl it is, however, also possible to secure the data channels provided that your FTP client can operate in ``passive'' mode. Examples of clients that can do this are Netscape Navigator and the Windows program WS_FTP.

To secure passive-mode data connections you must choose a range of ports on the server that will be used for data connections. In this example we will use 30000 to 30100. You then start ftpgw.tcl with the -p option to specify this port range:

  tclsh ftpgw.tcl -p 30000-30100
 
 

The Zebedee server would then be started as:

  zebedee -s -r 2121,30000-30100
 
 

and the client as

  zebedee 2121,30000-30100:ftpserverhost:2121,30000-30100
 
 

To access the server with both control and data connections secured using Netscape you would then supply a URL of the form:

  ftp://username@clienthost:2121/
 
 

where username is your user-name on the FTP server host.

CREDITS AND LEGALITIES

The following information can also be found in the file LICENCE.txt in the Zebedee distribution.
  Copyright (c) 1999, 2000, 2001 by Neil Winton. All Rights Reserved.
 
 
  This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
  it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
  the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or
  (at your option) any later version.
 
 
  This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
  but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
  MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the
  GNU General Public License for more details.
 
 
  You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
  along with this program; if not, write to the Free Software
  Foundation, Inc., 59 Temple Place - Suite 330, Boston, MA  02111-1307,
  USA.
 
 

A copy of the GNU General Public License can be found in the file GPL2.txt.

You may obtain the latest copy of Zebedee, including full source code from http://www.winton.org.uk/zebedee/ and other enquiries about Zebedee can be e-mailed to the author at zebedee@winton.org.uk

Zebedee would not have been possible without the use of a large amount of freely-available software to do all the really hard stuff. I gratefully acknowledge the contributions made by the authors of the following software packages.

Zebedee uses the ``Blowfish'' encryption algorithm devised by Bruce Schneier. For more information on Blowfish see http://www.counterpane.com/blowfish.html . The implementation used is by Eric Young and is covered by the following copyright:

  Copyright (C) 1995-1997 Eric Young (eay@mincom.oz.au)
  All rights reserved.
 
 
  This package is an Blowfish implementation written
  by Eric Young (eay@mincom.oz.au).
 
 
  This library is free for commercial and non-commercial use as long as
  the following conditions are aheared to.  The following conditions
  apply to all code found in this distribution.
 
 
  Copyright remains Eric Young's, and as such any Copyright notices in
  the code are not to be removed.
 
 
  Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
  modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
  are met:
  1. Redistributions of source code must retain the copyright
  notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
  2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
  notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the
  documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
  3. All advertising materials mentioning features or use of this software
  must display the following acknowledgement:
  This product includes software developed by Eric Young (eay@mincom.oz.au)
 
 
  THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY ERIC YOUNG ``AS IS'' AND
  ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE
  IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE
  ARE DISCLAIMED.  IN NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHOR OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE
  FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL
  DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS
  OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION)
  HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT
  LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY
  OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF
  SUCH DAMAGE.
 
 
  The license and distribution terms for any publically available version or
  derivative of this code cannot be changed.  i.e. this code cannot simply be
  copied and put under another distrubution license
  [including the GNU Public License.]
 
 
  The reason behind this being stated in this direct manner is past
  experience in code simply being copied and the attribution removed
  from it and then being distributed as part of other packages. This
  implementation was a non-trivial and unpaid effort.
 
 

Zebedee uses the zlib compression library by Jean-loup Gailly and Mark Adler. It is covered by the following copyright notice:

  (C) 1995-1998 Jean-loup Gailly and Mark Adler
 
 
  This software is provided 'as-is', without any express or implied
  warranty.  In no event will the authors be held liable for any damages
  arising from the use of this software.
 
 
  Permission is granted to anyone to use this software for any purpose,
  including commercial applications, and to alter it and redistribute it
  freely, subject to the following restrictions:
 
 
  1. The origin of this software must not be misrepresented; you must not
  claim that you wrote the original software. If you use this software
  in a product, an acknowledgment in the product documentation would be
  appreciated but is not required.
  2. Altered source versions must be plainly marked as such, and must not be
  misrepresented as being the original software.
  3. This notice may not be removed or altered from any source distribution.
 
 
  Jean-loup Gailly        Mark Adler
  jloup@gzip.org          madler@alumni.caltech.edu
 
 

Zebedee may use the bzip2 compression library by Julian Seward which is covered by the following licence:

  This program, "bzip2" and associated library "libbzip2", are
  copyright (C) 1996-1999 Julian R Seward.  All rights reserved.
 
 
  Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
  modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
  are met:
 
 
  1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
     notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
 
 
  2. The origin of this software must not be misrepresented; you must 
     not claim that you wrote the original software.  If you use this 
     software in a product, an acknowledgment in the product 
     documentation would be appreciated but is not required.
 
 
  3. Altered source versions must be plainly marked as such, and must
     not be misrepresented as being the original software.
 
 
  4. The name of the author may not be used to endorse or promote 
     products derived from this software without specific prior written 
     permission.
 
 
  THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE AUTHOR ``AS IS'' AND ANY EXPRESS
  OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED
  WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE
  ARE DISCLAIMED.  IN NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHOR BE LIABLE FOR ANY
  DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL
  DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE
  GOODS OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS
  INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY,
  WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING
  NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS
  SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.
 
 
  Julian Seward, Cambridge, UK.
  jseward@acm.org
  bzip2/libbzip2 version 0.9.5 of 24 May 1999
 
 

By default Zebedee is built using an aribtrary precision integer arithmetic library derived from the sources to "mirrordir-0.10.49" which in turn derived this from the Python sources. The copyright is as follows:

  huge-number.c: arbitrary precision integer library from Python sources
  This has nothing to do with cryptography.
  Copyright (C) 1998 Paul Sheer
 
 
  This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
  it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
  the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or
  (at your option) any later version.
 
 
  This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
  but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
  MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the
  GNU General Public License for more details.
 
 
  You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
  along with this program; if not, write to the Free Software
  Foundation, Inc., 675 Mass Ave, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA.
 
 
  This file was taken from the Python source for `long' type
  integers. I have changed it to compile independently of the
  Python source, and added the optimisation that GNU C can
  use 31 bit digits instead of Python's 15 bit. You can download
  the original from www.python.org. This file bears little
  resemblance to the original though - paul
 
 
  Copyright 1991-1995 by Stichting Mathematisch Centrum, Amsterdam,
  The Netherlands.
 
 
                          All Rights Reserved
 
 
  Permission to use, copy, modify, and distribute this software and its
  documentation for any purpose and without fee is hereby granted,
  provided that the above copyright notice appear in all copies and that
  both that copyright notice and this permission notice appear in
  supporting documentation, and that the names of Stichting Mathematisch
  Centrum or CWI or Corporation for National Research Initiatives or
  CNRI not be used in advertising or publicity pertaining to
  distribution of the software without specific, written prior
  permission.
 
 
  While CWI is the initial source for this software, a modified version
  is made available by the Corporation for National Research Initiatives
  (CNRI) at the Internet address ftp://ftp.python.org.
 
 
  STICHTING MATHEMATISCH CENTRUM AND CNRI DISCLAIM ALL WARRANTIES WITH
  REGARD TO THIS SOFTWARE, INCLUDING ALL IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF
  MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS, IN NO EVENT SHALL STICHTING MATHEMATISCH
  CENTRUM OR CNRI BE LIABLE FOR ANY SPECIAL, INDIRECT OR CONSEQUENTIAL
  DAMAGES OR ANY DAMAGES WHATSOEVER RESULTING FROM LOSS OF USE, DATA OR
  PROFITS, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, NEGLIGENCE OR OTHER
  TORTIOUS ACTION, ARISING OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE USE OR
  PERFORMANCE OF THIS SOFTWARE.
 
 

Zebedee uses the Secure Hash Algorith (SHA) the code for which was derived from Uwe Hollerbach's SHA module for perl. The code contains the following statement:

  NIST Secure Hash Algorithm
  heavily modified by Uwe Hollerbach <uh@alumni.caltech edu>
  from Peter C. Gutmann's implementation as found in
  Applied Cryptography by Bruce Schneier
 
 
  This code is in the public domain
 
 

Under Windows, Zebedee uses an implementation of the getopt function covered by the following copyright:

  Copyright (c) 1987, 1993, 1994
         The Regents of the University of California.  All rights reserved.
 
 
  Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
  modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
  are met:
  1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
  notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
  2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
  notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the
  documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
  3. All advertising materials mentioning features or use of this software
  must display the following acknowledgement:
         This product includes software developed by the University of
         California, Berkeley and its contributors.
  4. Neither the name of the University nor the names of its contributors
  may be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software
  without specific prior written permission.
 
 
  THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE REGENTS AND CONTRIBUTORS ``AS IS'' AND
  ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE
  IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE
  ARE DISCLAIMED.  IN NO EVENT SHALL THE REGENTS OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE
  FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL
  DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS
  OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION)
  HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT
  LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY
  OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF
  SUCH DAMAGE.
 
 

Thanks

Special thanks go to those people who have taken the trouble to give me feedback and suggestions for improvement!

  $Id: zebedee.pod,v 1.1.1.1 2001/04/12 18:07:40 ndwinton Exp $
 
 
Je fais la guerre, rien que la guerre.
Nous serons sans faiblesse, comme sans violence.
Le pays connaîtra qu'il est défendu.
-+- Georges Clémenceau, 20 novembre 1917 -+-